Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.19). 06/2005; 41(6):1313-21. DOI: 10.1002/hep.20701
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of a history of significant alcohol use or other known liver disease. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of NAFLD. The Pathology Committee of the NASH Clinical Research Network designed and validated a histological feature scoring system that addresses the full spectrum of lesions of NAFLD and proposed a NAFLD activity score (NAS) for use in clinical trials. The scoring system comprised 14 histological features, 4 of which were evaluated semi-quantitatively: steatosis (0-3), lobular inflammation (0-2), hepatocellular ballooning (0-2), and fibrosis (0-4). Another nine features were recorded as present or absent. An anonymized study set of 50 cases (32 from adult hepatology services, 18 from pediatric hepatology services) was assembled, coded, and circulated. For the validation study, agreement on scoring and a diagnostic categorization ("NASH," "borderline," or "not NASH") were evaluated by using weighted kappa statistics. Inter-rater agreement on adult cases was: 0.84 for fibrosis, 0.79 for steatosis, 0.56 for injury, and 0.45 for lobular inflammation. Agreement on diagnostic category was 0.61. Using multiple logistic regression, five features were independently associated with the diagnosis of NASH in adult biopsies: steatosis (P = .009), hepatocellular ballooning (P = .0001), lobular inflammation (P = .0001), fibrosis (P = .0001), and the absence of lipogranulomas (P = .001). The proposed NAS is the unweighted sum of steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. In conclusion, we present a strong scoring system and NAS for NAFLD and NASH with reasonable inter-rater reproducibility that should be useful for studies of both adults and children with any degree of NAFLD. NAS of > or =5 correlated with a diagnosis of NASH, and biopsies with scores of less than 3 were diagnosed as "not NASH."

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    ABSTRACT: Background It is widely known that salt is an accelerating factor for the progression of metabolic syndrome and causes cardiovascular diseases, most likely due to its pro-oxidant properties. We hypothesized that excessive salt intake also facilitates the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is frequently associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods We examined the exacerbating effect of high-salt diet on high-fat diet-induced liver injury in a susceptible model to oxidative stress, apoE knockout and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) transgenic mice. Results High-salt diet led to NASH in high-fat diet-fed LOX-1 transgenic/apoE knockout mice without affecting high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia or hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Additionally, a high-salt and high-fat diet stimulated oxidative stress production and inflammatory reaction to a greater extent than did a high-fat diet in the liver of LOX-1 transgenic/apoE knockout mice. Conclusions We demonstrated that high-salt diet exacerbated NASH in high-fat diet-fed LOX-1 transgenic /apoE knockout mice and that this effect was associated with the stimulation of oxidative and inflammatory processes; this is the first study to suggest the important role of excessive salt intake in the development of NASH. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12944-015-0002-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 10/2014; 6. DOI:10.1186/1758-5996-6-109 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    12/2014; 5(1):21. DOI:10.1186/1878-5085-5-21

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