Sodium currents in medullary neurons isolated from the pre-Bötzinger complex region.
ABSTRACT The pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) in the ventrolateral medulla contains interneurons important for respiratory rhythm generation. Voltage-dependent sodium channels mediate transient current (I(NaT)), underlying action potentials, and persistent current (I(NaP)), contributing to repetitive firing, pacemaker properties, and the amplification of synaptic inputs. Voltage-clamp studies of the biophysical properties of these sodium currents were conducted on acutely dissociated preBötC region neurons. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated the presence of mRNA for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, and Nav1.6 alpha-subunits in individual neurons. A TTX-sensitive I(NaP) was evoked in all tested neurons by ramp depolarization from -80 to 0 mV. Including a constant in the Boltzmann equation for inactivation by estimating the steady-state fraction of Na+ channels available for inactivation allowed prediction of a window current that did not decay to 0 at voltages positive to -20 mV and closely matched the measured I(NaP). Riluzole (3 microM), a putative I(NaP) antagonist, reduced both I(NaP) and I(NaT) and produced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. The latter decreased the predicted window current by an amount equivalent to the decrease in I(NaP). Riluzole also decreased the inactivation time constant at potentials in which the peak window/persistent currents are generated. Together, these findings imply that I(NaP) and I(NaT) arise from the same channels and that a simple modification of the Hodgkin-Huxley model can satisfactorily account for both currents. In the rostral ventral respiratory group (immediately caudal to preBötC), I(NaP) was also detected, but peak conductance, current density, and input resistance were smaller than in preBötC region cells.
SourceAvailable from: Mark Bellingham[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Riluzole is the sole treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but its therapeutically relevant actions on motor neurons are not well defined. Whole cell patch clamp recordings from hypoglossal motor neurons (HMs, n=25) in brainstem slices from 10-23 day old rats anesthetised with sodium pentobarbitone, to investigate the hypothesis that riluzole inhibited HMs by multiple mechanisms. Riluzole (20 μM) hyperpolarized HMs by decreasing an inward current, inhibited voltage-gated persistent Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents activated by slow voltage ramps, and negatively shifted activation of IH. Repetitive firing of HMs was strongly inhibited by riluzole, which also increased action potential threshold voltage and rheobase and decreased amplitude and maximum rise slope, but did not alter the maximal afterhyperpolarization amplitude or decay time constant. HM rheobase was inversely correlated with persistent Na(+) current density. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission was inhibited by riluzole by both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Riluzole decreased activity-dependent glutamate release, as shown by decreased amplitude of evoked and spontaneous EPSCs, decreased paired pulse ratio and decreased spontaneous, but not miniature, EPSC frequency. However, riluzole also decreased miniature EPSC amplitude and the inward current evoked by local application of glutamate onto HMs, suggesting a reduction of postsynaptic glutamate receptor sensitivity. Riluzole thus has a marked inhibitory effect on HM activity by membrane hyperpolarization, decreasing firing and inhibiting glutamatergic excitation by both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. These results broaden the range of mechanisms controlling motor neuron inhibition by riluzole, and are relevant to researchers and clinicians interested in understanding ALS pathogenesis and treatment.Journal of Neurophysiology 06/2013; DOI:10.1152/jn.00587.2012 · 3.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The persistent sodium channel is an important pacemaker component in rhythm generation. In the present study, we examined the effects of a persistent sodium channel blocker, riluzole on pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) and inspiratory neurons in the rostral medulla as well as on 4th cervical ventral root (C4)-inspiratory activity in brainstem-spinal cord preparations. Preparations were isolated from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7.4, at 25-26°C. The C4 inspiratory burst rate decreased in a dose-dependent manner (50-200μM) after 15min application of riluzole. Riluzole caused a strong reduction in the drive potential of Pre-I neurons but not of inspiratory neurons. After washout, C4 inspiratory burst gradually changed into an episodic pattern, in which one burst consisted of 3-9 short separate bursts. Riluzole also depressed the induction of repetitive firing induced by depolarizing stimulation. Under voltage clamp conditions, riluzole suppressed the negative-slope component of Pre-I neurons. Riluzole also depressed the intrinsic burst generation of Pre-I neurons in low calcium and high magnesium solution. Our findings indicate that the burst generation of Pre-I neurons is more sensitive than inspiratory burst generation to riluzole and thus suggested that persistent sodium channels have an important role in the burst generation of Pre-I neurons and are involved in the primary respiratory rhythm generation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Neuroscience Research 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2014.12.001 · 2.15 Impact Factor