Understanding childhood lead poisoning preventive behaviors: the roles of self-efficacy, subjective norms, and perceived benefits.
ABSTRACT Understanding individual and social influences on behaviors commonly recommended to prevent lead poisoning in children can guide more effective educational interventions.
In-person interviews were conducted with primary caregivers (n = 380) of American Indian and White children aged 1 to 6 living in or near the Tar Creek Superfund site in northeastern Oklahoma. Caregivers' perceived health benefits, self-efficacy, and subjective norms were assessed for four lead poisoning prevention behaviors (i.e., annual blood lead testing, playing in safe areas, washing hands before eating, and dusting with a damp cloth).
Caregivers spoke with their own mothers, spouses, and other female family members most often when they had concerns or worries about taking care of their children. In multivariate models, subjective norms, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy were positively associated with the hand-washing and damp-dusting behaviors, while only self-efficacy was associated with playing in safe areas. None of the variables were found to have significant influence on the blood lead testing behavior.
Education programs should address individual level factors such as self-efficacy and perceived health benefits but also consider new strategies that incorporate a normative dimension to lead poisoning prevention.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate a psychometric scale for preventing early childhood diarrhea in endemic areas. Before applying to the field, the scale was subjected to content validity by a panel of experts and piloting. The final version was applied to 448 mothers of children 0- to 5-year-olds, living in Fortaleza, northeast Brazil. Structured interviews were conducted to identify diarrheal episodes in the study children. Significant negative correlations were found between higher maternal self-efficacy scores and previous childhood diarrhea (p = .001). In addition, positive correlations were found with maternal age (p = .018). The frequency of children (6-36 months old) with diarrhea was significantly lower when scale scores were higher (p = .015). The predictive validity revealed that high levels of maternal self-efficacy were a protective factor against childhood diarrhea. Cronbachs alpha was .84. The scale was found reliable. Cultural adjustments may be needed to extrapolate the scale to other endemic areas worldwide.Public Health Nursing 03/2013; 30(2):150-8. · 0.78 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parents need meaningful and actionable information if they are to reduce household environmental health risks to their children. To address this issue, we tested the effectiveness of a multi-risk social/cognitive intervention on rural low-income parents' (1) environmental health self-efficacy and (2) stage of environmental health precautionary adoption. Biomarker (lead, cotinine) and household samples (carbon monoxide, radon, mold/mildew, and drinking water contaminants) were collected from 235 families (399 adults, 441 children) in Montana and Washington states. Families were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups; intervention families received 4 visits from public health nurses who provided tailored information and guidance to parents; controls received usual and customary public health services. At 3 months, the intervention group had significantly higher scores on (1) all 6 risk-specific self-efficacy subscales (P < .01), (2) general environmental health self-efficacy (P < .001), (3) 5 of 6 risk-specific precaution adoption subscales (P < .05), and (4) general environmental health precaution adoption (P < .001). The intervention yielded significant improvements in both outcomes. This evidence supported the need for a policy discussion addressing the added value that broadbased public health nurse interventions might bring to children's environmental health.American Journal of Public Health 08/2011; 101 Suppl 1:S262-70. · 3.93 Impact Factor