Understanding childhood lead poisoning preventive behaviors: the roles of self-efficacy, subjective norms, and perceived benefits
ABSTRACT Understanding individual and social influences on behaviors commonly recommended to prevent lead poisoning in children can guide more effective educational interventions.
In-person interviews were conducted with primary caregivers (n = 380) of American Indian and White children aged 1 to 6 living in or near the Tar Creek Superfund site in northeastern Oklahoma. Caregivers' perceived health benefits, self-efficacy, and subjective norms were assessed for four lead poisoning prevention behaviors (i.e., annual blood lead testing, playing in safe areas, washing hands before eating, and dusting with a damp cloth).
Caregivers spoke with their own mothers, spouses, and other female family members most often when they had concerns or worries about taking care of their children. In multivariate models, subjective norms, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy were positively associated with the hand-washing and damp-dusting behaviors, while only self-efficacy was associated with playing in safe areas. None of the variables were found to have significant influence on the blood lead testing behavior.
Education programs should address individual level factors such as self-efficacy and perceived health benefits but also consider new strategies that incorporate a normative dimension to lead poisoning prevention.
Article: Family and Community MedicineBMJ Clinical Research 11/1966; DOI:10.1136/bmj.2.5524.1260-c · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although it is important that children at risk of developing elevated blood lead receive regular screening, attendance at screening programs is variable. A literature review was undertaken to better understand the factors that affect carers' decisions about whether or not to take their children for blood lead screening. Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Psychinfo) were searched to identify relevant publications, supported by reviewing reference lists of identified articles and searching with internet-based search engines. Thirty-four published studies dealing with blood lead screening rates were identified, of which only seven papers focused specifically on parent's attitudes to blood lead screening. The barriers to and enablers of screening for elevated blood lead levels appear to be similar to those identified for other screening programs. It is recommended that attendance at screening be routinely monitored, and that where participation is suboptimal further research be undertaken, in close co-operation with affected communities or sub-groups, to determine how best to encourage screening and to protect children from lead. It is important to minimize stigma and to ensure, as far as possible, that practical barriers such as lack of transport do not restrict access to screening programs.Science of The Total Environment 03/2008; 390(1):13-22. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.041 · 4.10 Impact Factor