Metabolic adaptation at birth.
ABSTRACT After birth, the neonate must make a transition from the assured continuous transplacental supply of glucose to a variable fat-based fuel economy. The normal infant born at term accomplishes this transition through a series of well-coordinated metabolic and hormonal adaptive changes. The patterns of adaptation in the preterm infant and the baby born after intrauterine growth restriction are, however, different to that of a full-term neonate, with the risk for former groups that there will be impaired counter-regulatory ketogenesis. There is much less precise linkage of neonatal insulin secretion to prevailing blood glucose concentrations. These patterns of metabolic adaptation are further influenced by feeding practices.
Article: Neonatal liver physiology.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the neonate, the liver is relatively immature and undergoes several changes in its functional capacity during the early postnatal period. The essential liver functions can be classified into three categories: metabolism, detoxification, and bile synthesis. In general, the immature liver function has limited consequences on the healthy term neonate. However, preterm neonates are particularly susceptible to the effects of the immature liver function placing them at risk of hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, cholestasis, bleeding, and impaired drug metabolism. An appreciation of the dynamic changes in liver function during the neonatal period is essential for successful management of neonates who require medical and surgical interventions. This review will focus on the neonatal liver function as well as the changes that the liver undergoes as it matures.Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 11/2013; 22(4):185-189. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucosuria in preterm infants is often measured using a visually readable reagent strip, e.g., when monitoring total parenteral nutrition or during sepsis or when treating with corticosteroids. However, the specific circumstances in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as the use of diapers and the high temperature in incubators, could affect its reliability. To evaluate the reliability of the semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria under the specific circumstances of a NICU setting. Nine hundred assessments of artificially supplemented (contrived) urine samples, intended to simulate pathological specimens, were performed under the following varying conditions: environmental temperature (21°C and 34°C); different times of contact of the urine with the diaper; and using two different methods of collecting urine from the diaper. Each reagent strip was read independently by three observers. The test strips scores were categorized as 0, 1+, 2+, 3+, or 4+ in ascending degree of glucosuria. Agreement was excellent under all the different conditions (temperature, weighted kappa (κw) = 0.92; method of urine collection, κw = 0.88; time, p = 0.266). Inter-observer reliability was very good (multi-rater κ = 0.81). The deviation between the different conditions was seldom larger than one category (2.9%). The reagent strip readings were concordant with the true urinary glucose concentrations in 79.0% of assessments. The discordance was never larger than one category. The reliability of the semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria in newborn infants using reagent strips is good, even under the conditions of a NICU. Changes in the rating of reagent strips of more than one category are most likely to be beyond measurement error.Pediatrics & Neonatology 04/2014; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article highlights some of the important developmental characteristics that underpin common problems seen in moderate and late preterm infants. Preterm birth is associated with an increased prevalence of clinical problems caused by functional immaturities in a wide variety of organ systems, acquired problems, and problems associated with inadequate monitoring and/or follow-up plans. There are variations in the degree of maturation among infants of similar gestational ages because the developmental process is nonlinear. Therefore, different organ systems mature at rates and trajectories that are specific to their functions. A better understanding of these principles can help guide optimal treatment strategies.Clinics in perinatology 12/2013; 40(4):645-63. · 1.54 Impact Factor