COPing with hypoxia.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Baxter Research Bldg II, Room 204C (Lab 215), 580 S. Preston Street, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 5.97). 08/2005; 16(4-5):462-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2005.03.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To understand how cells respond to altered oxygenation, a frequent experimental paradigm is to isolate known components of bona fide oxygen responsive proteins. Recent studies have shown that a protein known as CSN5 or JAB1 interacts with both the HIF-1alpha oxygen-responsive transcription factor and its oxygen-dependent regulator, the Von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) tumor suppressor. CSN5 is a component of the COP9 Signalosome (CSN) which is a multi-subunit protein that has high homology to the lid of the 19S lid of 26S proteasome. The exact function of the CSN5 interaction with pVHL and HIF-1alpha remains to be fully elucidated, but it is clear that the interaction is both oxygen dependent and that CSN5 may play different roles under oxic and hypoxic responses. Further, evidence has also been published indicating that pVHL can be potentially post-translationally modified by CSN5 (de-neddylation) and that CSN5 transcription is regulated by hypoxia as are many of the key pVHL/HIF-1alpha regulatory genes such as the PHDs and OS-9. This review will give a broad overview of known CSN5 and COP9 Signalosome functions and how these functions impact the pVHL/HIF-1alpha signaling complex and potentially other oxygen-sensitive response networks.

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    ABSTRACT: There is interest in understanding post-translational modifications of proteins in inflammatory disease. Neddylation is the conjugation of the molecule neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) to promote protein stabilization. Cullins are a family of NEDD8 targets important in the stabilization and degradation of proteins, such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF; via Cullin-2). Here, we elucidate the role of human deneddylase-1 (DEN-1, also called SENP8) in inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo and define conditions for targeting neddylation in models of mucosal inflammation. HIF provides protection in inflammatory models, so we examined the contribution of DEN-1 to HIF stabilization. Pharmacologic targeting of neddylation activity with MLN4924 (IC50, 4.7 nM) stabilized HIF-1α, activated HIF promoter activity by 2.5-fold, and induced HIF-target genes in human epithelial cells up to 5-fold. Knockdown of DEN-1 in human intestinal epithelial cells resulted in increased kinetics in barrier formation, decreased permeability, and enhanced barrier restitution by 2 ± 0.5-fold. Parallel studies in vivo revealed that MLN4924 abrogated disease severity in murine dextran sulfate sodium colitis, including weight loss, colon length, and histologic severity. We conclude that DEN-1 is a regulator of cullin neddylation and fine-tunes the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of cullin neddylation may provide a therapeutic opportunity in mucosal inflammatory disease.-Curtis, V. F., Ehrentraut, S. F., Campbell, E. L., Glover, L. E., Bayless, A., Kelly, C. J., Kominsky, D. J., Colgan, S. P. Stabilization of HIF through inhibition of Cullin-2 neddylation is protective in mucosal inflammatory responses.
    The FASEB Journal 10/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1096/fj.14-259663 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleosides such as adenosine (Ado) influence nearly every aspect of physiology and pathophysiology. Extracellular nucleotides liberated at local sites of inflammation are metabolized through regulated phosphohydrolysis by a series of ecto-nucleotidases including ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), found on the surface of a variety of cell types. Once generated, Ado is made available to bind and activate one of four G protein-coupled Ado receptors. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies implicate Ado in a broad array of tissue-protective mechanisms that provide new insight into adenosine actions. Studies in cultured cells and murine tissues have indicated that Ado receptors couple to novel posttranslational protein modifications, including Cullin deneddylation, as a new anti-inflammatory mechanism. Studies in Ado receptor-null mice have been revealing and indicate a particularly important role for the Ado A2B receptor in animal models of intestinal inflammation. Here, we review contributions of Ado to cell and tissue stress responses, with a particular emphasis on the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 01/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00109-012-0990-0 · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A deeper understanding of the mechanisms that control responses to inflammation is critical to the development of effective therapies. We sought to define the most proximal regulators of the Cullin (Cul)-RING ligases, which play a central role in the stabilization of NF-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). In these studies, we identify the human deneddylase-1 (SENP8) as a key regulator of Cul neddylation response in vitro and in vivo. Using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs), we examined inflammatory responses to LPS or TNF-α by assessing Cul neddylation status, NF-κB and HIF-1α stabilization, and inflammatory cytokine secretion. HMECs with an intact neddylation pathway showed a time-dependent induction of Cul-1 neddylation, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, stabilization of HIF-1α, and increased NF-κB/HIF-α promoter activity in response to LPS. HMECs lacking SENP8 were unable to neddylate Cul-1 and subsequently were unable to activate NF-κB or HIF-1α. Pharmacological targeting of neddylation (MLN4924) significantly abrogated NF-κB responses, induced HIF-1α promoter activity, and reduced secretion of TNF-α-elicited proinflammatory cytokines. MLN4924 stabilized HIF and abrogated proinflammatory responses while maintaining anti-inflammatory IL-10 responses in vivo following LPS administration. These studies identify SENP8 as a proximal regulator of Cul neddylation and provide an important role for SENP8 in fine-tuning the inflammatory response. Moreover, our findings provide feasibility for therapeutic targeting of the Culs during inflammation.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2012; 190(1). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1202041 · 5.36 Impact Factor


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