COPing with hypoxia.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Baxter Research Bldg II, Room 204C (Lab 215), 580 S. Preston Street, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 5.97). 08/2005; 16(4-5):462-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2005.03.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To understand how cells respond to altered oxygenation, a frequent experimental paradigm is to isolate known components of bona fide oxygen responsive proteins. Recent studies have shown that a protein known as CSN5 or JAB1 interacts with both the HIF-1alpha oxygen-responsive transcription factor and its oxygen-dependent regulator, the Von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) tumor suppressor. CSN5 is a component of the COP9 Signalosome (CSN) which is a multi-subunit protein that has high homology to the lid of the 19S lid of 26S proteasome. The exact function of the CSN5 interaction with pVHL and HIF-1alpha remains to be fully elucidated, but it is clear that the interaction is both oxygen dependent and that CSN5 may play different roles under oxic and hypoxic responses. Further, evidence has also been published indicating that pVHL can be potentially post-translationally modified by CSN5 (de-neddylation) and that CSN5 transcription is regulated by hypoxia as are many of the key pVHL/HIF-1alpha regulatory genes such as the PHDs and OS-9. This review will give a broad overview of known CSN5 and COP9 Signalosome functions and how these functions impact the pVHL/HIF-1alpha signaling complex and potentially other oxygen-sensitive response networks.

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    ABSTRACT: In the last several years, multiple lines of evidence have suggested that the COP9 signalosome (CSN) plays a significant role in the regulation of multiple cancers and could be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. First, the CSN plays a key role in the regulation of Cullin-containing ubiquitin E3 ligases that are central mediators of a variety of cellular functions essential during cancer progression. Second, several studies suggest that the individual subunits of the CSN, particularly CSN5, might regulate oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions independently of, or coordinately with, the CSN holocomplex. Thus, deregulation of CSN subunit function can have a dramatic effect on diverse cellular functions, including the maintenance of DNA fidelity, cell cycle control, DNA repair, angiogenesis, and microenvironmental homeostasis that are critical for tumor development. Additionally, clinical studies have suggested that the expression or localization of some CSN subunits correlate to disease progression or clinical outcome in a variety of tumor types. Although the study of CSN function in relation to tumor progression is in its infancy, this review will address current studies in relation to cancer initiation, progression, and potential for therapeutic intervention.
    Molecular Cancer Research 01/2006; 3(12):645-53. DOI:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-05-0233 · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major adaptive pathway for hypoxia is hypoxic preconditioning (HPC), a form of endogenous protection that renders cells tolerant to severe challenges of hypoxia. We sought to define the antiinflammatory properties of HPC. cDNA microarray analysis of lung tissue from mice subjected to hypoxia or HPC identified a cluster of NF-kappaB-regulated genes whose expression is attenuated by HPC. Studies using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter assay confirmed a significant suppression of NF-kappaB activation during HPC. HPC-elicited activity was conferrable, as a soluble supernatant from HPC-treated cells, and the active fraction was purified and identified as adenosine (Ado). Guided by recent studies demonstrating bacterial inhibition of NF-kappaB through cullin-1 (Cul-1) deneddylation, we found a dose-dependent deneddylation of Cul-1 by Ado receptor stimulation predominantly mediated by the Ado A2B receptor subtype. Further, siRNA-mediated repression of CSN5, a subunit of the COP9 signalosome responsible for deneddylation of Cul-1, partially reversed HPC-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB. Cul-1 deneddylation was evident in a murine model of HPC and lost in animals lacking extracellular Ado (Cd73-/- mice). Taken together, these results demonstrate that HPC induces extracellular accumulation of Ado and suppresses NF-kappaB activity through deneddylation of Cul-1. These results define a molecular regulatory pathway by which Ado provides potent antiinflammatory properties.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/2007; 117(3):703-11. DOI:10.1172/JCI30049 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of endothelial cells in humans is an early event in the response to hypoxia that may contribute to the endothelium's endogenous capacity to reduce tissue injury. To better understand the mechanism underlying this process, we utilized Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression to study the transcriptome of human vein umbilical endothelial cells (EA.hy926) shortly after the induction of hypoxia. Of over 13,000 genes detected in each pool, 112 showed obvious differences in expression. Metabolic processes such as protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, aminoglycan metabolism, ribonucleotide biosynthesis, adenosine salvage, and lipid metabolism were reinforced. Pro-proliferation and pro-apoptotic states suggest the co-existence of pro- and anti-injury forces in endothelium shortly after the induction of hypoxia. Other adaptive responses include reinforced angiogenesis and vasodilation. Additionally, gene transcription in the endothelium shortly after the induction of hypoxia was regulated independently of HIF-1alpha. Our efforts to elucidate the adaptive response at an early post-hypoxia stage should contribute to further investigation of the protective processes that occur in the endothelium and has potential clinical implications.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2009; 384(4):415-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.04.160 · 2.28 Impact Factor


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