Protective effects of baicalein on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT Baicalein (BAL), a main flavonoid constituent of Scutellaria radix, was studied for its inhibitory effects on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In a preliminary study, baicalein revealed effective antioxidant properties in a test of its capacity to quench the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Further investigations showed that baicalein, at the concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 microM, decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by 30 min of pretreatment with t-BHP (1.5 mM) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Baicalein also attenuated t-BHP-induced mitochondrial depolarization as determined by a retention test of rhodamine 123 and DNA repair synthesis as evidenced by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). In addition, baicalein decreased the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) content which acts as a DNA damage marker. The sum of the results suggests that the protective effect of baicalein against the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hepatocytes induced by t-BHP is due to its ability to quench free radicals.
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ABSTRACT: Our current study aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) in Swiss albino mice, which is exposed to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] for its ability to alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction and systolic failure. Here, we report that oral administration of B(a)P (50 mg/kg body weight)-induced pulmonary genotoxicities in mice was assessed in terms of elevation in ROS generation and DNA damage in lung mitochondria. MDA-DNA adducts were formed in immunohistochemical analysis, which confirmed nuclear DNA damage. mRNA expression levels studied by RT-PCR analysis of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) were found to be significantly decreased and showed a marked increase in membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening. Accompanied by up-regulated Bcl-xL and down-regulated Bid, Bim and Cyt-c proteins studied by immunoblot were observed in B(a)P-induced lung cancer-bearing animals. Administration of BE (12 mg/kg body weight) significantly reversed all the above deleterious changes. Moreover, assessment of mitochondrial enzyme system revealed that BE treatment effectively counteracts B(a)P-induced down-regulated levels/activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH-dehydrogenase, cytochrome-C-oxidase and ATP levels. Restoration of mitochondria from oxidative damage was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopic examination. Further analysis of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, vitamin E, and vitamin C in lung mitochondria was carried out to substantiate the antioxidant effect of BE. The overall data conclude that chemotherapeutic efficacy of BE might have strong mitochondria protective and restoration capacity in sub-cellular level against lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 10/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of baicalein against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in mice. Mice were orally administered with baicalein after CCl(4) injection, and therapeutic baicalein was given twice a day for 4 d. The anti-inflammation effects of baicalein were assessed directly by hepatic histology and serum alanine aminotranferease and aspartate aminotransferase measurement. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was used to evaluate the effect of baicalein in promoting hepatocyte proliferation. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liver IL-6, TNF-α, transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) genes expression were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. CCl(4)-induced acute liver failure model offers a survival benefit in baicalein-treated mice. The data indicated that the mRNA levels of IL-6 and TNF-α significantly increased within 12 h after CCl(4) treatment in baicalein administration groups, but at 24, 48 and 72 h, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was kept at lower levels compared with the control. The expression of TGF-α, HGF and EGF was enhanced dramatically in baicalein administration group at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Furthermore, we found that baicalein significantly elevated the serum level of TNF-α and IL-6 at the early phase, which indicated that baicalein could facilitate the initiating events in liver regeneration. Baicalein may be a therapeutic candidate for acute liver injury. Baicalein accelerates liver regeneration by regulating TNF-α and IL-6 mediated pathways.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2012; 18(45):6605-13. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Baicalein, one of the major flavonids in Scutellaria baicalensis, has historically been used in anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. However, the anti-metastatic effect and related mechanism(s) in glioma are still unclear. In this study, we thus utilized glioma cell lines U87MG and U251MG to explore the effect of baicalein. We found that administration of baicalein significantly inhibited migration and invasion of glioma cells. In addition, after treating with baicalein for 24 h, there was a decrease in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression as well as proteinase activity in glioma cells. Conversely, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, baicalein treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylated level of p38, but not ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and PI3K/Akt. Combined treatment with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and baicalein resulted in the synergistic reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and then increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression; and the invasive capabilities of U87MG cells were also inhibited. However, p38 chemical activator (anisomycin) could block these effects produced by baicalein, suggesting baicalein directly downregulate the p38 signaling pathway. In conclusion, baicalein inhibits glioma cells invasion and metastasis by reducing cell motility and migration via suppression of p38 signaling pathway, suggesting that baicalein is a potential therapeutic agent for glioma.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90318. · 3.73 Impact Factor