Predictors of serum dioxin levels among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia: a cross-sectional pilot study. Environ Health 4:8-21

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, I-1405, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Environmental Health (Impact Factor: 3.37). 02/2005; 4(1):8. DOI: 10.1186/1476-069X-4-8
Source: PubMed


Toxicological studies and limited human studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and adverse developmental and reproductive health effects. Given that children may be particularly susceptible to reproductive and developmental effects of organochlorines, and the paucity of information available regarding childhood exposures to dioxins in particular, we undertook a pilot study to describe the distribution of, and identify potential predictors of exposure to, dioxin-like compounds and dioxins among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. The pilot study was also designed to guide the development of a large prospective cohort study on the relationship of exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs with growth and pubertal development in peri-pubertal Chapaevsk boys.
221 boys age 14 to 17 participated in the pilot study. Each of the boys, with his mother, was asked to complete a nurse-administered detailed questionnaire on medical history, diet, and lifestyle. The diet questions were used to measure the current and lifetime consumption of locally grown or raised foods. Blood samples from 30 of these boys were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for analysis of dioxins, furans and PCBs.
The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentrations for total PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were 95.8 pg/g lipids (40.9, 144), 33.9 pg/g lipids (20.4, 61.8), and 120 pg/g lipids (77.6, 157), respectively. For WHO-TEQs, the median (25th, 75th percentile) for total PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs were 0.29 (0.1, 9.14), 7.98 (5.27, 12.3), and 7.39 (4.51, 11.9), respectively. Although TCDD was largely non-detectable, two boys had high TCDD levels (17.9 and 21.7 pg/g lipid). Higher serum levels of sum of dioxin-like compounds and sum of dioxin TEQs were positively associated with increased age, consumption of fish, local meats other than chicken, PCB 118, and inversely with weeks of gestation.
The total TEQs among Chapaevsk adolescents were higher than most values previously reported in non-occupationally exposed populations of comparable or even older ages. Dietary consumption of local foods, as well as age and weeks of gestation, predicted dioxin exposure in this population.

Download full-text


Available from: Larisa Altshul, Oct 07, 2015
21 Reads
  • Source
    • "Study nurses administered a validated Russian Institute of Nutrition FFQ that was modified to assess local food consumption (Hauser et al. 2005). The FFQ included questions on the usual frequency of consumption and portion sizes (classified based on photographs) of > 70 food items consumed during the previous year (Martinchik et al. 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies have evaluated predictors of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a class of lipophilic persistent chemicals. To identify predictors of serum OCP concentrations -- hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) -- among boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Between 2003-2005, 499 boys ages 8-9 years were recruited in a prospective cohort. The initial study visit included a physical exam, blood collection, health, lifestyle, and food-frequency questionnaires, and determination of residential distance from a local factory complex that produced HCB and β-HCH. Fasting serum samples were analyzed for OCPs at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of the boys' serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p'-DDE concentrations. Among 355 boys with OCP measurements, median serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p'-DDE concentrations were 158, 167, and 284 ng/g lipid respectively. Lower body mass index, longer breastfeeding duration, and local dairy consumption were associated with higher concentrations of OCPs. Boys who lived <2 km from the factory complex had 64% (95% CI: 37, 96) and 57% (95% CI: 32, 87) higher mean HCB and β-HCH concentrations than boys who lived ≥5 km away, respectively. Living >3 years in Chapaevsk predicted higher β-HCH concentrations, and having parents who lacked a high school education predicted higher p,p'-DDE concentrations. Among this cohort of pre-pubertal Russian boys, predictors of serum OCPs included consumption of local dairy products, longer local residence, and residential proximity to the local factory complex.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 08/2013; 121(11-12). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306480 · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "For over 50 years this town was the site of chlorinated chemical production at the Middle Volga Chemical Plant [7], also known as SVZH. Plant activity started decreasing in 1991 [15], and ceased in 2003. The plant produced chemical blister agents (mustard gas and lewisite) prior to 1949, hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) and its derivatives from 1967 to 1987, then crop protection chemicals (liquid chlorine, acids, methyl chloroform, and vinyl chloride) until its closure [7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs) among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009), and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ) decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid), and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid). Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.
    Environmental Health 06/2011; 10(1):62. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-10-62 · 3.37 Impact Factor
    • "The examples above highlight the fact that contemporary food contamination and associated human exposure remains closely associated with chlorine 7 producing/using industries and in particular organochlorine products or their associated produced wastes. While local food or human contamination has been reported for some PCDD/F and PCB contaminated sites (see above and, for example, Balzer et al. 2007; Braga et al. 2002; Chan et al. 2007; Evers et al. 1997; Hauser et al. 2005; Johansen et al. 1996; Karouna-Renier et al. 2007; Mendoza et al. 2006; Persson et al. 2006; Revich et al. 2004; Revich and Shelepchikov 2007; Ruus et al. 2006; Schmid et al. 2003; Turrio- Baldassarri et al. 2007), a comprehensive investigation of PCDD/F exposure from the numerous reservoir sources via the food chain and other pathways (see Fig. 2 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohaxane (HCH), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) can have significant adverse environmental consequences. This paper reviews past experiences with such disposal practices and highlights their unsustainability due to the risks of contamination of ecosystems, the food chain, together with ground and drinking water supplies.
    Waste Management & Research 01/2011; 29(1):107-21. DOI:10.1177/0734242X10390730 · 1.11 Impact Factor
Show more