Hepatitis C virus infection: the new global epidemic.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus infects an estimated 170 million people worldwide. It is a major cause of liver cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is also a leading cause of liver transplant in the USA. The virus is primarily transmitted parenterally, but there is significant mother-to-child transmission. Partly due to the virus's genetic diversity, it evades the host immune response and it has been difficult to identify candidate vaccines. However, significant advances have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Currently, the combination of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and leads to long-term eradication of the virus in approximately 54% of people. Treatment response is dependent on the infecting genotype, with 76 to 80% of those with genotypes 2 and 3, but only approximately 40% with genotype 1 or 4 achieving a sustained virologic response. Since treatment is expensive and associated with significant adverse effects, more effective strategies for the prevention of transmission are needed, especially in resource-limited countries, where the burden of disease is the highest.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C is caused by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), detriments the quality of life of 170 million people around the globe. Although, much has been known about the biology of the virus in recent years, a complete cure of hepatitis C remains difficult in a large majority of patients. The current treatment regimen comprising pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin has sub-optimal effectiveness especially in patients infected with HCV genotype 1. The development of an effective vaccine against the virus as well as a potent anti-viral therapy remains urgently needed. Herein, we give a brief overview of the molecular biology of hepatitis C and the postulated mechanisms of hepatitis C pathogenesis. The issues surrounding the current treatment of hepatic C, the promising new therapies on the horizon and the experimental strategies to develop a vaccine have also been discussed in a greater detail.Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC 20(1):129-33.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The main purpose of this study was to find out the seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti HCV in apparently healthy population of district Swat. The other objective was to find out the different types of genotype prevalent in this part of the country. Methodology: This is a descriptive, observational study which is community based and was conducted by the Hepatology section of Medical Department, Saidu Teaching Hospital, Saidu Sharif from May 2007 to August 2008. Screening camps were held in all the four sectors to which the district was arbitrarily divided. Sera were checked by rd generation Elisa technique for HBsAg and anti HCV antibody. Positive cases for anti HCV were recalled in batches and the blood samples taken for HCV RNA testing by PCR and Genotyping. Results: Data was available on a total of 4680 healthy men and women. There were 2870 male and 1810 female participants. We found 3871 (82.7%) subjects Negative. One hundred sixty four (3.5%) were positive for HBsAg and 645(13.8%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Only 15 volunteers (0.3%) were infected with both HBV and HCV. Two hundred twenty cases, who were positive for HCV RNA BY PCR testing were checked for genotyping. One hundred nine (49.5%) cases had genotype 3a, 74(33.7%) cases were having genotype 3b, 19 cases (8.7%) had mixed, 10 cases (4.5%) had Ib and eight cases(3.6%) were untypeble. Conclusion: In district Swat of NWFP, prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenmia is 3.5% and anti Hepatitis C antibody is 13.8% with a combined prevalence of 17.3%. Genotype three is the commonest genotype (83%) prevalent in this area and six months combination antiviral therapy can be undertaken without checking for genotype in routine.
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ABSTRACT: Voice dialing technology is widely used in mobile phones, but most of them are based on speaker-dependent speech recognition, and cannot support dialing by saying the digits directly. Digit dialing requires speaker-independent speech recognition technology. The paper introduces a 16-bit fixed-point DSP based Mandarin digit recognition system based on discrete HMM, and discriminative training for the parameters. The parameters of the DHMM are reduced and only the truncated output probability matrices are used. A minimum classification error rate method is used to adjust the matrices discriminatively to improve the recognition accuracy further. In an experiment, a 14.4% error rate reduction is achieved.Signal Processing, 2002 6th International Conference on; 09/2002