Involvement of FrzA/sFRP-1 and the Wnt/frizzled pathway in ischemic preconditioning.
ABSTRACT Phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta via the Akt/PI3-Kinase pathway during ischemic preconditioning (PC) has been shown to be cardioprotective. As FrzA/sFRP-1, a secreted antagonist of the Wnt/Frizzled pathway, is expressed in the heart and is able to decrease the phosphorylation of GSK-3beta in vitro on vascular cells, we examined its effect during PC using transgenic mouse overexpressing FrzA in cardiomyocytes (alpha-MHC promoter) under a conditional transgene expression approach (tet-off system). Overexpression of FrzA inhibited the increase in GSK-3beta phosphorylation as well as protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon activation in transgenic mice after PC as compared with littermates. Phospho-Akt (P-Akt), phospho-JNK, or the cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels were not modified, phospho-p38 (P-p38) was slightly increased in transgenic mice after PC as compared with littermates. FrzA transgenic mice displayed a larger infarct size and a greater worsening of cardiac function compared with littermates. All these differences were reversed by the addition of doxycycline. This study demonstrates for the first time that disruption of a beta-catenin independent Wnt/Frizzled pathway induces the activation of GSK-3beta and reverses the benefit of preconditioning.
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ABSTRACT: It is proposed that ischemic preconditioning (PC) initiates signaling that converges on mitochondria and results in cardioprotection. The outcome of this signaling on mitochondrial enzyme complexes is yet to be understood. We therefore used proteomic methods to test the hypothesis that PC and pharmacological preconditioning similarly alter mitochondrial signaling complexes. Langendorff-perfused murine hearts were treated with the specific GSK-3 inhibitor AR-A014418 (GSK Inhib VIII) for 10 min or subjected to four cycles of 5-min ischemia-reperfusion (PC) before 20-min global ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. PC and GSK Inhib VIII both improved recovery of postischemic left ventricular developed pressure, decreased infarct size, and reduced lactate production during ischemia compared with their time-matched controls. We used proteomics to examine mitochondrial protein levels/posttranslational modifications that were common between PC and GSK Inhib VIII. Levels of cytochrome-c oxidase subunits Va and VIb, ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, and cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6 were increased while cytochrome c was decreased with PC and GSK Inhib VIII. Furthermore, the amount of cytochrome-c oxidase subunit VIb was found to be increased in PC and GSK Inhib VIII mitochondrial supercomplexes, which are comprised of complexes I, III, and IV. This result would suggest that changes in complex subunits associated with cardioprotection may affect supercomplex composition. Thus the ability of PC and GSK inhibition to alter the expression levels of electron transport complexes will have important implications for mitochondrial function.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 10/2009; 298(1):H75-91. · 3.71 Impact Factor
Article: Myocardial transcriptome analysis of human arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy primarily of the right ventricle characterized through fibrofatty replacement of cardiomyocytes. The genetic etiology in ARVC patients is most commonly caused by dominant inheritance and high genetic heterogeneity. Though histological examinations of ARVC-affected human myocardium reveals fibrolipomatous replacement, the molecular mechanisms leading to loss of cardiomyocytes are largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the transcriptomes of six ARVC hearts and compared our findings to six nonfailing donor hearts (NF). To characterize the ARVC-specific transcriptome, we compared our findings to samples from seven patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The myocardial DCM and ARVC samples were prepared from hearts explanted during an orthotopic heart transplantation representing myocardium from end-stage heart failure patients (NYHA IV). From each heart, left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial samples were analyzed by Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays, adding up to six sample groups. Unsupervised cluster analyses of the groups revealed a clear separation of NF and cardiomyopathy samples. However, in contrast to the other samples, the analyses revealed no distinct expression pattern in LV and RV of myocardial ARVC samples. We further identified differentially expressed transcripts using t-tests and found transcripts separating diseased and NF ventricular myocardium. Of note, in failing myocardium only ~15-16% of the genes are commonly regulated compared with NF samples. In addition both cardiomyopathies are clearly distinct on the transcriptome level. Comparison of the expression patterns between the failing RV and LV using a paired t-test revealed a lack of major differences between LV and RV gene expression in ARVC hearts. Our study is the first analysis of specific ARVC-related RV and LV gene expression patterns in terminal failing human hearts.Physiological Genomics 11/2011; 44(1):99-109. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been implicated in the development and progression of several human malignancies. Previous in vitro studies also implicate ILK in the activation of Akt and beta-catenin as well as in the regulation of E-cadherin expression. However, the role of ILK in human laryngeal cancer and its possible in vivo downstream effectors in the disease are currently unknown. We examined by immunohistochemistry the protein expression of ILK, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), E-cadherin, and beta-catenin in 97 invasive squamous laryngeal carcinomas. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of ILK and p-Akt decreased membranous expression of E-cadherin and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was found in 87.6%, 85.6%, 71.1%, and 43.3% of cases, respectively. Our results suggest that ILK expression may be implicated in human laryngeal carcinoma and its localization in the nucleus possibly proposes novel nuclear functions of this molecule. In addition, enhanced ILK expression correlates with activation of Akt but not with downregulation of E-cadherin and activation of beta-catenin. Finally, in our material while activated Akt seems to characterize well-differentiated tumors, loss of E-cadherin and activation of beta-catenin correlated with high grade carcinomas.Virchows Arch. 11/2008; 453:511-519.