Hyperoxia-mediated oxidative stress increases expression of UCP3 mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT The uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial protein expressed mainly in skeletal muscle. Among several hypotheses for its physiological function, UCP3 has been proposed to prevent excessive production of reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of an oxidative stress induced by hyperoxia on UCP3 expression in mouse skeletal muscle and C2C12 myotubes. We found that the hyperoxia-mediated oxidative stress was associated with a 5-fold and 3-fold increase of UCP3 mRNA and protein levels, respectively, in mouse muscle. Hyperoxia also enhanced reactive oxygen species production and UCP3 mRNA expression in C2C12 myotubes. Our findings support the view that both in vivo and in vitro UCP3 may modulate reactive oxygen species production in response to an oxidative stress.
Article: ATF-1 is a hypoxia-responsive transcriptional activator of skeletal muscle mitochondrial-uncoupling protein 3.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia induces oxidative damage in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is the skeletal muscle enriched uncoupling protein and has previously been shown to confer resistance against oxidative stress. We show that hypoxia robustly up-regulates skeletal muscle UCP3 and that the absence of UCP3 in primary skeletal myocytes exacerbates hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species generation. In this context, we reasoned that the investigation of the regulation of UCP3 may identify novel hypoxia-responsive regulatory pathways that modulate intrinsic anti-oxidant defenses. By screening a transcription factor array of 704 full-length cDNAs in murine C2C12 myoblasts following cotransfection of a murine UCP3 promoter-luciferase construct and myoD we identified numerous candidate regulatory factors that up-regulate UCP3. Active transcription factor-1 (ATF-1) was identified, and as this transcription factor is a known component of a multiprotein hypoxia-induced regulatory complex, we explored its role in hypoxia-mediated UCP3 up-regulation. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identify a 10-bp region required for ATF-1 induction of UCP3 promoter activity. Hypoxia promotes the phosphorylation of ATF-1, and the knockdown of ATF-1 by shRNA prevents hypoxia-mediated up-regulation of UCP3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAP kinase prevents both hypoxia-mediated ATF-1 phosphorylation and UCP3 up-regulation. PKA signaling does not modulate hypoxia-induced UCP3 up-regulation and neither does HIF-1alpha activation by cobalt chloride. In conclusion, ATF-1, via p38 MAP kinase activation, functions as a novel regulatory pathway driving UCP3 expression. These data reinforce the role of ATF-1 as a hypoxia-responsive trans-activator and identifies a novel regulatory program that may modulate cellular responses to oxygen-deficit.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2008; 283(34):23410-8. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Expression profiling of skeletal muscle following acute and chronic beta2-adrenergic stimulation: implications for hypertrophy, metabolism and circadian rhythm.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Systemic administration of beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonists has been found to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and significant metabolic changes. In the context of energy homeostasis, the importance of beta-AR signaling has been highlighted by the inability of beta(1-3)-AR-deficient mice to regulate energy expenditure and susceptibility to diet induced obesity. However, the molecular pathways and gene expression changes that initiate and maintain these phenotypic modulations are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify differential changes in gene expression in murine skeletal muscle associated with systemic (acute and chronic) administration of the beta(2)-AR agonist formoterol. Skeletal muscle gene expression (from murine tibialis anterior) was profiled at both 1 and 4 hours following systemic administration of the beta(2)-AR agonist formoterol, using Illumina 46K mouse BeadArrays. Illumina expression profiling revealed significant expression changes in genes associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, myoblast differentiation, metabolism, circadian rhythm, transcription, histones, and oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes relevant to the regulation of muscle mass and metabolism (in the context of the hypertrophic phenotype) were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR to examine gene expression in response to both acute (1-24 h) and chronic administration (1-28 days) of formoterol at multiple timepoints. In terms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, attenuation of myostatin signaling (including differential expression of myostatin, activin receptor IIB, phospho-Smad3 etc) was observed following acute and chronic administration of formoterol. Acute (but not chronic) administration of formoterol also significantly induced the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism, including hexokinase 2, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1, and uncoupling protein 3. Interestingly, formoterol administration also appeared to influence some genes associated with the peripheral regulation of circadian rhythm (including nuclear factor interleukin 3 regulated, D site albumin promoter binding protein, and cryptochrome 2). This is the first study to utilize gene expression profiling to examine global gene expression in response to acute beta(2)-AR agonist treatment of skeletal muscle. In summary, systemic administration of a beta(2)-AR agonist had a profound effect on global gene expression in skeletal muscle. In terms of hypertrophy, beta(2)-AR agonist treatment altered the expression of several genes associated with myostatin signaling, a previously unreported effect of beta-AR signaling in skeletal muscle. This study also demonstrates a beta(2)-AR agonist regulation of circadian rhythm genes, indicating crosstalk between beta-AR signaling and circadian cycling in skeletal muscle. Gene expression alterations discovered in this study provides insight into many of the underlying changes in gene expression that mediate beta-AR induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and altered metabolism.BMC Genomics 09/2009; 10:448. · 4.07 Impact Factor
Article: Uncoupled respiration, ROS production, acute lipotoxicity and oxidative damage in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria from UCP3-ablated mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The function of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is still not established. Mitochondrial uncoupling, control of ROS production, protection against lipotoxicity and protection against oxidative stress are functions classically discussed. To establish a role for UCP3 in these functions, we have here used UCP3 (-/-) mice, backcrossed for 10 generations on a C57Bl/6 background. In isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, we examined uncoupled respiration, both unstimulated and in the presence of fatty acids. We did not observe any difference between mitochondria from wildtype and UCP3 (-/-) mice. We measured H(2)O(2) production rate and respiration rate under reactive oxygen species-generating conditions (succinate without rotenone) but found no effect of UCP3. We tested two models of acute lipotoxicity-fatty acid-induced oxidative inhibition and fatty acid-induced swelling-but did not observe any protective effect of UCP3. We examined oxidative stress by quantifying 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and protein carbonyls in the mitochondria-but did not observe any protective effect of UCP3. We conclude that under the experimental conditions tested here, we find no evidence for the function of UCP3 being basal or induced uncoupling, regulation of ROS production, protection against acute lipotoxicity or protection against oxidative damage.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2011; 1807(9):1095-105. · 4.66 Impact Factor