Size and burden of social phobia in Europe. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-University Berlin, Rudower Chaussee 18, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
European Neuropsychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.37). 09/2005; 15(4):453-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.04.002
Source: PubMed


This paper provides a critical review of the prevalence of social phobia in European countries, a description of associated disability and burden and of clinical correlates and risk factors associated with social phobia. On the basis of a comprehensive literature search we identified 21 community studies and two primary care studies. The median lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of social phobia in community samples referring to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria were 6.65% and 2.0%, respectively. Younger individuals showed the highest rates, and women were more frequently affected than men. Social phobia was shown to be a persistent condition with a remarkably high degree of comorbid conditions, associated impairment and disability. Research deficits lie in a lack of data for most EU countries and in a lack of studies in children and the elderly. No data are available addressing met and unmet needs for intervention and costs, and data for vulnerability and risk factors of malignant course are scarce.

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    • "The OCD patients also had a significantly more serious current depressive symptomatology . This pattern of mood disorder comorbidity reflects the global symptomatic severity of the disorders in both groups due to the clinical setting in which the recruitment was made (Stein, 2002; Fehm et al., 2005). OCD patients also had more comorbid eating disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: Even though obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and anxiety disorders (AD) have been separated in the taxonomy adopted by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, many issues remain concerning the physiopathological similarities and differences between those categories. Our objective was therefore to explore and compare their personality and emotional features, with the assumption that the distinction of two independent spectrums should imply the existence of two partially distinct temperamental profiles. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Positive and Negative Emotionality (PNE) scale to compare two groups of patients with OCD (n=227) or AD (n=827). The latter group included patients with social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Most temperament, character and emotionality measures showed no significant differences between both groups. In the personality measures results, only the self-directedness score (TCI-R) was significantly lower in OCD patients but this difference was not significant when the comparison was adjusted for the depressive scale score and age. Only lower PNE positive affects scores were obtained in OCD patients in the adjusted comparisons. These findings suggest that OCD and AD are not really distinguishable from the point of view of associated personality traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    08/2015; 229(3):PSYD1400683. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.08.020
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    • "), a median lifetime prevalence of 7% in Europe ( Fehm et al., 2005 ) and a point prevalence of 4% ( Ohayon and Schatzberg , 2010 ). In addition to acute symptoms of distress , avoidance behavior is commonly observed in SAD patients , which has destructive consequences for social and occupational functioning ( Ollendick and Hirshfeld - Becker , 2002 ; Stein and Stein , 2008 ; American Psychiatric Associ - ation , 2013 ; Bandelow and Wedekind , 2014 ) . "
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    ABSTRACT: In human beings, experiments investigating fear conditioning with social stimuli are rare. The current study aims at translating an animal model for social fear conditioning (SFC) to a human sample using an operant SFC paradigm in virtual reality (VR). Forty participants actively (using a joystick) approached virtual male agents that served as conditioned stimuli (CS). During the acquisition phase, unconditioned stimuli (US), a combination of an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms) and a female scream (95 dB, 40 ms), were presented when participants reached a defined proximity to the agent with a contingency of 75% for CS+ agents and never for CS- agents. During the extinction and the test phases, no US was delivered. Outcome variables were pleasantness ratings and physiological reactions in heart rate and fear-potentiated startle. Additionally, the influence of social anxiety, which was measured with the Social Phobia Inventory scale, was evaluated. As expected after the acquisition phase the CS+ was rated clearly less pleasant than the CS-. This difference vanished during extinction. Furthermore, the HR remained high for the CS+, while the HR for the CS- was clearly lower after than before the acquisition. Furthermore, a clear difference between CS+ and CS- after the acquisition indicated successful conditioning on this translational measure. Contrariwise extinction was not observed on the physiological variables. Importantly, at the generalization test, higher socially fearful participants rated pleasantness of all agents as low whereas the lower socially fearful participants rated pleasantness as low only for the CS+. SFC was successfully induced and extinguished confirming operant conditioning in this SFC paradigm. These findings suggest that the paradigm is suitable to expand the knowledge about the learning and unlearning of social fears. Further studies should investigate the operant mechanisms of development and treatment of social anxiety disorder.
    Frontiers in Psychology 04/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00400 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Así mismo, los datos obtenidos en los estudios longitudinales apoyan la relación de causalidad entre ésta y los trastornos que de forma comórbida se presentan asociados con ella (véase Robinson, Sareen, Cox y Bolton, 2011; Stein et al., 2001). Por todo ello puede afirmarse que la FS constituye un importante factor de riesgo para la salud y la calidad de vida (Buckner, Ecker y Proctor, 2011; Dalrymple y Zimmerman, 2011; Eng, Coles, Heimberg y Safren, 2005; Gültekin y Dereboy, 2011; Wong, Sarver y Beidel, 2012), conlleva importantes consecuencias negativas para la vida social, académica y profesional (Fehm, Beesdo, Jacobi y Fiedler, 2008; Fehm et al., 2005; Lecrubier et al., 2000) e importantes costes económicos de orden familiar y para los sistemas de salud (Acarturk et al., 2009; NICE, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objectives of this study were 1) comparing the magnitude of the deficit in social skills of adolescents in the sample as compared to those reported in other studies, and 2) providing evidence on which effects generated by the programme for “Intervention for adolescents with social phobia” (IASP) can be attributed to the component of social skills training (SST). Accordingly, we designed an investigation with a treatment group in which the entire program applies IASP (G1) and another group (G2) in which the SST component was removed. The sample consisted of 41 Spanish adolescents with a mean age of 14.95 years (SD: 1.3, range: 14-18), with a majority of girls (63.41%). All met the criteria required for the diagnosis of Generalized Social Phobia (GSP). The results show that: (i) The subjects in our sample show deficits in social skills similar to those found for the population with GSP magnitudes; (ii) Statistically significant differences between groups in favor of G1 were found. The intra-group effect sizes were much higher in the group with SST. The role of SST is very relevant. KEY WORD: early detection and intervention, social skills training, adolescents, generalized social phobia, treatment. Resumen Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) comparar la magnitud de los déficit en habilidades sociales de los adolescentes de la muestra respecto a los informados en otros estudios y 2) aportar pruebas respecto a qué parte de los efectos generados por la “Intervención en adolescentes con fobia social” (IAFS) pueden ser atribuidos al entrenamiento en habilidades sociales (EHS). Participaron 41 adolescentes (63,41% mujeres), de entre 14 y 17 años (M= 14,95; DT= 1,3), que cumplieron los criterios para el diagnóstico de fobia social generalizada (FSG). Los sujetos fueron asignados aleatoriamente a cada una de las condiciones experimentales para el tratamiento de la FSG, G1: IAFS completo y G2: IAFS sin el componente de EHS. Los resultados muestran que: (i) se presentaron déficit en habilidades sociales similares a los hallados para la población con FSG; (ii) se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas a favor del grupo con EHS, siendo los tamaños del efecto intragrupo muy superiores en éste frente a los del grupo sin EHS. El papel del EHS se muestra muy relevante. PALABRAS CLAVE: detección e intervención temprana, entrenamiento en habilidades sociales, adolescentes, fobia social generalizada, tratamiento.
    Behavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual 12/2014; 22(3):441-459. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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