Article

Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
Tobacco control (Impact Factor: 3.85). 07/2005; 14(3):201-6. DOI: 10.1136/tc.2004.010173
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India.
A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers.
Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernization and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements--for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the imminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching.
Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to minimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
91 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n = 562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (p < 0.01). The findings from this study reiterate the need for stronger legislation and strict enforcement of bans on direct and indirect advertising and promotion of tobacco products in India.
    Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The Government of India passed the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COPTA 2003), which prohibits the sale of tobacco products within 100 yards of educational institutions and regulates tobacco advertising. The aim of this research was to monitor compliance with the section of COPTA 2003 regarding the advertisement, display and sale of tobacco products around educational institutions in Ahmedabad City, India. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study around 30 randomly selected schools. METHODS: In March 2010, an observational study was conducted to assess compliance with COPTA 2003 in Ahmedabad City, India. All vendors within a 100-yard radius of 30 randomly selected schools were identified. At locations where tobacco was sold, information was collected regarding type of product sold, sale of tobacco in single units and advertising. RESULTS: Twenty public schools and 10 private schools were sampled. Of these, 87% [n = 26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 69-95%] had tobacco sales within 100 yards of their entrance. Of the 771 vendors observed, 24% (n = 185, 95% CI 18-32%) sold tobacco products. Tobacco advertising in violation of the law was found around 57% of schools (n = 17, 95% CI 39-73%), product displays around 83% of schools (n = 25, 95% CI 65-93%) and single sales around 70% of schools (n = 21, 95% CI 51-84%). CONCLUSIONS: Violation of the sections of COPTA 2003 regarding sale of tobacco products around educational institutions and advertising in general is widespread in Ahmedabad City, India. Effective enforcement of the existing law is necessary to protect the children in India from widespread exposure to the sale and marketing of tobacco products.
    Public health 04/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    01/2013;

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from