Nanotechnology for the biologist. J Leukoc Biol

Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, 1050 Boyles St., Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology (Impact Factor: 4.29). 10/2005; 78(3):585-94. DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0205074
Source: PubMed


Nanotechnology refers to research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scale, leading to the controlled manipulation and study of structures and devices with length scales in the 1- to 100-nanometers range. Objects at this scale, such as "nanoparticles," take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen in the bulk scale. The small size, surface tailorability, improved solubility, and multifunctionality of nanoparticles open many new research avenues for biologists. The novel properties of nanomaterials offer the ability to interact with complex biological functions in new ways-operating at the very scale of biomolecules. This rapidly growing field allows cross-disciplinary researchers the opportunity to design and develop multifunctional nanoparticles that can target, diagnose, and treat diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses "nanotech" strategies and constructs that have already demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efficacy.

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    • "Considering the vast range of nanomaterial applications, it is a concern that, in the foreseeable future, nanoparticles will be detected in practically all major environmental matrices. From a human health and ecological standpoint, it is often useful to a priori evaluate new nanomaterials being manufactured to compare their apparent societal benefits vis-à-vis their potential adverse impacts (McNeil 2005; Colvin 2003). This may prove problematic simply because the pace of technological advancement does not coincide well with thorough evaluation of associated adverse risks to human health and the environment—more so because there is not a well-defined threshold to determine whether the adverse effects outweigh the benefits. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid advances in nanotechnology in recent years have raised concern about the occurrence, distribution, fate, and transport of nanoparticles in the environment. Sources of nanoparticles in the environment include their widespread use in a variety of engineering operations, biomedical applications, consumer goods, food and drug delivery system, and so forth. Because they can be released into the environment either as a waste product or as a byproduct of some engineered processes or applications, nanoparticles or nanoscale materials are increasingly detected in various environmental matrices. By their very nature, nanoparticles are active at molecular levels, and there is a concern that their occurrence in the environment and unintended exposure may pose an adverse risk to human health and ecology. Because of the nature of recent nanotechnology-based applications, our understanding of nanoparticle behavior in the environment is limited. The objective of this literature review is to provide a measure of understanding and to document the state of knowledge on the environmental occurrence, distribution, fate, and risk of nanoparticles. This review covers a wide range of published studies that illustrate the state of understanding about the behavior of nanoparticles in various environmental matrices such as air, soil, water, and wastewater. A brief review of the evolving regulatory framework to deal with the occurrence of nanoparticles is also included.
    Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste 12/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000258
    • ">100 nm) they could be inefficient as carriers [251] Owing to the heterogeneous nature of cancer cells within the same tumor, and a multitude of possibilities for both oncogene and survival pathways abnormally activate the method by which could be optimized the MDI represent the new age of personalized treatments. The ambition of nanoparticle-based therapy is to deliver multiple drugs whilst addressing the specificity and optimization of pharmacokinetics [252] [253]. "
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    ABSTRACT: As we enter the twenty-first century, several therapies based on using nanoparticles (NPs) ranging in size 1 - 1000 nm have been successfully brought to the clinic to treat cancer, pain and infectious diseases. These therapies bring together the ability of NPs to target the delivery of drugs more precisely, to improve solubility, to prevent degradation, to improve their therapeutic index and to reduce the immune response. NPs come in all shapes and sizes, designed specifically for biomedical applications such as solid lipid polymers, liposomes, dendrimers, nanogels, and quantum dots. These NPs offer many attractive characteristics such as biological stability and biocompatibility, thus incorporating different biological or drug molecules. Among the major therapeutic challenges from neurological diseases through to cancer is the development of nanomaterials that are able to be effective against the disease. In the case of neurodegeneration, one of the most difficult areas to penetrate for drug discovery in the body is the central nervous system, protected by the blood-brain-barrier. Whilst in the case of cancer, the biggest problem is how to specifically target a tumor with sufficient drug without causing side effects or inducing resistance. A new generation of intelligent NPs is emerging for the treatment of human disease such as neurological disorders and cancer. The use of natural alternative therapy is an encouraging idea in drug discovery. To this end as we gain more knowledge into the biological function of exosomes, this will allow us to harness their potential as natural NPs in future therapeutics.
    Current Drug Metabolism 09/2014; 16(8). DOI:10.2174/1389200216666150812121902 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    • "One of the reasons behind the intense interest is that nanotechnology permits the controlled synthesis of materials where at least one dimension of the structure is less than 100 nm. This ultra-small size is comparable to naturally occurring proteins and biomolecules in the cell (McNeil SE., 2005). Recent studies have shown that ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a high degree of cancer cell selectivity with the ability surpass the therapeutic indices of some commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in similar ex vivo studies (Wang H. et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: A B S T R A C T The present study was designed to evaluate the prevention efficacy of the novel prepared compound, high pH sodium ascorbate combined with N-acetyl cysteine / Zinc oxide nanocomposite in vivo on the incidence of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumor in female rats. The prevention efficacy of such treatment was evaluated by measuring the activity of caspase-3and caspase-9 in mammary gland homogenate in addition to the activities of the most important free radical scavengers of the antioxidant defense system in breast tissue including; reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as malondialdehyde content (MAD) which is considered an indicator of lipid peroxidation. The result of the present study revealed that our novel tested compound, regarding their in vivo anti-tumor effect, so that combination between them as it could ameliorate or normalize most of the investigated parameters. In conclusion, these findings suggest that novel synthetic Nano composite and high pH ascorbate may potentially presents new hope for the development of breast cancer prevention, which should attract further scientific and pharmaceutical interest.
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