Nanotechnology for the biologist.
ABSTRACT Nanotechnology refers to research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scale, leading to the controlled manipulation and study of structures and devices with length scales in the 1- to 100-nanometers range. Objects at this scale, such as "nanoparticles," take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen in the bulk scale. The small size, surface tailorability, improved solubility, and multifunctionality of nanoparticles open many new research avenues for biologists. The novel properties of nanomaterials offer the ability to interact with complex biological functions in new ways-operating at the very scale of biomolecules. This rapidly growing field allows cross-disciplinary researchers the opportunity to design and develop multifunctional nanoparticles that can target, diagnose, and treat diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses "nanotech" strategies and constructs that have already demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efficacy.
- Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste 12/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Editorial Nanotechnology represents one of new sciences that promise to provide a broad range of novel uses and improved technologies for numerous applications. One important reason behind the intense interest is that nanotechnology permits the controlled preparation of nanomaterials where at least one dimension of the structure is less than 100 nm . It is the study and design of machines or devices on the molecular and atomic level. To be considered in nanotechnology, structures must be anywhere from 1 to 100 nm in size. The first studies on the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) in microbiology for photoelectrochemical sterilization of microbial cells dates back to 1985 [2,3]. Recently, studies have appeared devoted on the possibility of using TiO 2 -NPs in oncology . In the past decade, the developments in the area of preparation and application of different nanostructured titanium dioxide (nanowires, nanotubes, nanofibers and nanoparticles) and zinc oxide have been tremendous. This work briefly describes the production, properties, and applications of nanostructured titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Special emphasis is placed on photocatalytic activity as well as on some requirements for efficient photocatalysts . In the past thirteen years, those nanomaterials have different toxicity profiles compared with larger materials because of their small size and also their high reactivity. Capping is the coating of one semiconductor or metal nanomaterial on the surface of another semiconductor or metal nanoparticle .Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 01/2015; 2(1):1-3.
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ABSTRACT: The in vivo toxicity to eukaryotes of nanosilver (AgNP) spheres and plates in two sizes each was assessed using the simple model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. For each shape, smaller AgNP size correlated with higher toxicity, as indicated by reduced larval growth. Smaller size also correlated with significant increases in silver uptake for silver nanospheres. Citrate coated silver spheres of 20 nm diameter induced an innate immune response that increased or held steady over 24 hours, while regulation of genes involved in metal metabolism peaked at 4 hours and subsequently decreased. For AgNP spheres, coating altered bioactivity, with a toxicity ranking of polyethylene glycol (PEG) > polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) ≅ branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) > citrate, but silver uptake ranking of PEG > PVP > citrate > BPEI. Our findings in C. elegans correlate well with findings in rodents for AgNP size vs. uptake and toxicity, as well as for induction of immune effectors, while using methods that are faster and far less expensive, supporting the use of C. elegans as an alternative model for early toxicity screening.Toxicology Reports 11/2014;