Prevalence, severity and risk factors of restless legs syndrome in the general adult population in two Scandinavian countries
ABSTRACT To estimate prevalence and severity (using the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS)) and to identify risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Population-based cross-sectional study; 2005 randomly selected adults 18 years and above participated in a telephone interview in Norway and Denmark, employing the next-birthday technique.
Of the cross-section, 11.5% fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for RLS. Half of these reported the symptoms as moderate to very severe. Mean duration of the complaint was 10 years. Prevalence was higher in females than in males (13.4 vs 9.4%) and lowest in the youngest age group (18-29 years, 6.3%). From 30 years and above, no clear age-related difference was seen. Main predictors of RLS were insomnia (odds ratios: 1.71-3.16) and symptoms of periodic limb movements in sleep (3.20-7.85). The response rate was 47%, making the results less reliable.
This study indicates that there is a high occurrence of RLS among adults. Main predictors are insomnia and periodic limb movements in sleep.
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ABSTRACT: Background In 2003, following a workshop at the National Institutes of Health, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) developed updated diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome/Willis–Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). These criteria were integral to major advances in research, notably in epidemiology, biology, and treatment of RLS/WED. However, extensive review of accumulating literature based on the 2003 NIH/IRLSSG criteria led to efforts to improve the diagnostic criteria further. Methods The Clinical Standards Workshop, sponsored by the WED Foundation and IRLSSG in 2008, started a four-year process for updating the diagnostic criteria. That process included a rigorous review of research advances and input from clinical experts across multiple disciplines. After broad consensus was attained, the criteria were formally approved by the IRLSSG executive committee and membership. Results Major changes are: (i) addition of a fifth essential criterion, differential diagnosis, to improve specificity by requiring that RLS/WED symptoms not be confused with similar symptoms from other conditions; (ii) addition of a specifier to delineate clinically significant RLS/WED; (iii) addition of course specifiers to classify RLS/WED as chronic–persistent or intermittent; and (iv) merging of the pediatric with the adult diagnostic criteria. Also discussed are supportive features and clinical aspects that are important in the diagnostic evaluation. Conclusions The IRLSSG consensus criteria for RLS/WED represent an international, interdisciplinary, and collaborative effort intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research.Sleep Medicine 08/2014; 15(8). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.03.025 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to ascertain the efficacy and safety of transdermal rotigotine (2 and 3mg/24h) in Japanese patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). In our double-blind placebo-controlled study, 284 Japanese patients with idiopathic RLS were randomly assigned to receive rotigotine 2mg/24h or 3mg/24h, or placebo, for 13weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) total score. The placebo-subtracted decreases in IRLS total score for rotigotine 2mg/24h and 3mg/24h were -2.8±1.3 and -3.1±1.3, respectively, which were significant (P<0.05). The interaction between baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and treatment group for the change in IRLS total score was significant, indicating greater improvements in IRLS total score in patients with severe insomnia. Overall, 80.0%, 86.2%, and 51.6% of patients in the rotigotine 2mg/24h, 3mg/24h, and placebo groups, respectively, experienced adverse events (AEs) including application site reactions in 42.1%, 50.0%, and 7.4% of patients, respectively. None of the AEs were severe. Our results showed that rotigotine was effective without major safety concerns at doses of up to 3mg/24h in Japanese patients with RLS.Sleep Medicine 08/2013; 14(11). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.07.007 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This narrative review describes the differential diagnosis of restless legs syndrome, and provides an overview of the evidence for the associations between RLS and potential comorbidities. Secondary causes of RLS and the characteristics of pediatric RLS are also discussed. Finally, management strategies for RLS are summarized. Methods: The review began with a comprehensive PubMed search for "restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease" in combination with the following: anxiety, arthritis, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cardiac, cardiovascular disease, comorbidities, depression, end-stage renal disease, erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, insomnia, kidney disease, liver disease, migraine, mood disorder, multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy, neuropathy, obesity, pain, Parkinson's disease, polyneuropathy, pregnancy, psychiatric disorder, sleep disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and uremia. Additional papers were identified by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Results and Conclusions: Although clinical diagnosis of RLS can be straightforward, diagnostic challenges may arise when patients present with comorbid conditions. Comorbidities of RLS include insomnia, depressive and anxiety disorders, and pain disorders. Differential diagnosis is particularly important, as some of the medications used to treat insomnia and depression may exacerbate RLS symptoms. Appropriate diagnosis and management of RLS symptoms may benefit patient well-being and, in some cases, may lessen comorbid disease burden. Therefore, it is important that physicians are aware of the presence of RLS when treating patients with conditions that commonly co-occur with the disorder.Current Medical Research and Opinion 05/2014; DOI:10.1185/03007995.2014.918029 · 2.37 Impact Factor