Regulated lentiviral NGF gene transfer controls rescue of medial septal cholinergic neurons.
ABSTRACT Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to promote survival and function of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain in various models of neuronal degeneration in rodents and primates. We examined whether a regulatable in vivo expression system can control the survival of cholinergic neurons after injury, using a tetracycline-regulated promoter ("tet-off" system) to modulate lentiviral NGF gene delivery. Two weeks after lesions to cholinergic neurons, significant cell rescue (65+/-8% neuron survival; P<0.005 compared to controls) was observed when NGF expression was activated. Treatment with the tetracycline analog doxycycline to turn gene expression "off" resulted in a significant loss of cholinergic neurons (only 37+/-5% neurons remained, an amount that did not differ from untreated, lesioned controls). Animals treated with a constitutively active and robust nonregulated NGF expression system showed the same degree of neuronal rescue (73+/-8%) as animals treated with activated tet-regulated vectors. ELISA measurements confirmed that oral treatment of animals with doxycycline reduced NGF protein levels to levels in untreated control subjects. These data demonstrate for the first time that NGF delivery by lentiviral gene transfer using tetracycline-regulated promoters can completely regulate neuronal rescue and protein production in the brain.
- SourceAvailable from: David EscorsGene Therapy - Tools and Potential Applications, 03/2013; IntechOpen.
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ABSTRACT: GTPases function as intracellular, bimolecular switches by adopting different conformational states in response to binding GDP or GTP. Their activation is mediated through cell-surface receptors. Rho GTPases act on several downstream effectors involved in cellular morphogenesis, cell polarity, migration and cell division. In neurons, Rho GTPases regulate various features of dendritic and axonal outgrowth during development and regeneration mainly through their effects on the cytoskeleton. This review summarizes the main functions of Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases as key regulators of morphological neuroplasticity under normal and pathological conditions.Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 03/2011; 193(4):259-66. DOI:10.1016/j.aanat.2011.02.015 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nervous system growth factor gene delivery can promote axonal growth and prevent cell death in animal models of CNS trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. The ability to regulate growth factor expression or signaling pathways downstream from growth factor receptors remains a desirable goal for in vivo gene transfer. To achieve precise pharmacological modulation of neurotrophin activity, we have generated a chimeric trkA receptor (ItrkA) by fusing the entire intracellular domain of the trkA high-affinity NGF receptor to two intracellular, modified FK506 binding domains for the synthetic small molecule dimerization ligand AP20187. Rat PC12 cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing ItrkA and green fluorescent protein (GFP; via an internal ribosome entry site). Treatment of ItrkA-expressing PC12 cells with AP20187 induced neurite outgrowth and differentiation in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, with a half-maximal response at a concentration of 1 nM AP20187. Seventy percent of cells responded to AP20187 by day 3. Western blots demonstrated that AP20187 treatment resulted in phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt in ItrkA-transduced PC12 cells but not in nontransduced, naïve cells. Phosphorylation levels were comparable to levels obtained with 50 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF). In addition, ItrkA lentiviral transduction of primary E15 dorsal root ganglion neurons significantly increased neurite growth three- to fourfold in the presence of AP20187 compared with control GFP transduced and naïve neurons. These results demonstrate that small ligand-induced dimerization of the intracellular domain of trkA can efficiently simulate the biological activity of NGF and provide a means to regulate intracellular neurotrophin receptor signaling.Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/2009; 87(12):2624-31. DOI:10.1002/jnr.22101 · 2.73 Impact Factor