Microtubule transport defects in neurological and ciliary disease
ABSTRACT Microtubules are primarily responsible for facilitating long-distance transport of both proteins and organelles. Given the critical role of this process in cellular function, it is not surprising that perturbation of microtubule-based transport can lead to diverse phenotypes in humans, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer or Huntington disease. Recent investigations have also indicated that defects in specialized microtubule-based transport systems, such as mutations affecting the transport of protein particles along the length of cilia (intraflagellar transport) can cause retinal dystrophy, polycystic kidney disease or more complex syndromic phenotypes, such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome. In this review, we discuss recent findings implicating defects in microtubule-associated transport and motor proteins in a variety of diseases, particularly the role of defective microtubular transport in neurological and ciliary disease. These defects frequently display phenotypic consequences that manifest as human disease yet do not cause organismal lethality.
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ABSTRACT: The lissencephaly protein Lis1 has been reported to regulate the mechanical behavior of cytoplasmic dynein, the primary minus-end-directed microtubule motor. However, the regulatory mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we address this issue using purified proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a combination of techniques, including single-molecule imaging and single-particle electron microscopy. We show that rather than binding to the main ATPase site within dynein's AAA+ ring or its microtubule-binding stalk directly, Lis1 engages the interface between these elements. Lis1 causes individual dynein motors to remain attached to microtubules for extended periods, even during cycles of ATP hydrolysis that would canonically induce detachment. Thus, Lis1 operates like a "clutch" that prevents dynein's ATPase domain from transmitting a detachment signal to its track-binding domain. We discuss how these findings provide a conserved mechanism for dynein functions in living cells that require prolonged microtubule attachments.Cell 08/2012; 150(5):975-86. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2012.07.022
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ABSTRACT: Oral-facial-digital type I (OFDI) syndrome is an X-linked male lethal developmental disorder. It is ascribed to ciliary dysfunction and characterized by malformation of the face, oral cavity, and digits. Conditional inactivation using different Cre lines allowed us to study the role of the Ofd1 transcript in limb development. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that Ofd1 is necessary for correct ciliogenesis in the limb bud but not for cilia outgrowth, in contrast to what was previously shown for the embryonic node. Mutants with mesenchymal Ofd1 inactivation display severe polydactyly with loss of antero-posterior (A/P) digit patterning and shortened long bones. Loss of digit identity was found to be associated with a progressive loss of Shh signaling and an impaired processing of Gli3, whereas defects in limb outgrowth were due to defective Ihh signaling and to mineralization defects during endochondral bone formation. Our data demonstrate that Ofd1 plays a role in regulating digit number and identity during limb and skeletal patterning increasing insight on the functional role of primary cilia during development.Developmental Biology 10/2010; 349(2):179-91. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.09.020
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ABSTRACT: We report on a large family in which a novel X-linked recessive mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome comprising macrocephaly and ciliary dysfunction co-segregates with a frameshift mutation in the OFD1 gene. Mutations of OFD1 have been associated with oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1S) that is characterized by X-chromosomal dominant inheritance and lethality in males. In contrast, the carrier females of our family were clinically inconspicuous, and the affected males suffered from severe mental retardation, recurrent respiratory tract infections and macrocephaly. All but one of the affected males died from respiratory problems in infancy; and impaired ciliary motility was confirmed in the index patient by high-speed video microscopy examination of nasal epithelium. This family broadens the phenotypic spectrum of OFD1 mutations in an unexpected way and sheds light on the complexity of the underlying disease mechanisms.Human Genetics 10/2006; 120(2):171-8. DOI:10.1007/s00439-006-0210-5