Comparing rat's to human's age: how old is my rat in people years?

Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.05). 07/2005; 21(6):775-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2005.04.002
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Although many potential neuroplasticity based therapies have been developed in the lab, few have translated into established clinical treatments for human neurologic or neuropsychiatric diseases. Animal models, especially of the visual system, have shaped our understanding of neuroplasticity by characterizing the mechanisms that promote neural changes and defining timing of the sensitive period. The lack of knowledge about development of synaptic plasticity mechanisms in human cortex, and about alignment of synaptic age between animals and humans, has limited translation of neuroplasticity therapies. In this study, we quantified expression of a set of highly conserved pre- and post-synaptic proteins (Synapsin, Synaptophysin, PSD-95, Gephyrin) and found that synaptic development in human primary visual cortex (V1) continues into late childhood. Indeed, this is many years longer than suggested by neuroanatomical studies and points to a prolonged sensitive period for plasticity in human sensory cortex. In addition, during childhood we found waves of inter-individual variability that are different for the four proteins and include a stage during early development (<1 year) when only Gephyrin has high inter-individual variability. We also found that pre- and post-synaptic protein balances develop quickly, suggesting that maturation of certain synaptic functions happens within the 1 year or 2 of life. A multidimensional analysis (principle component analysis) showed that most of the variance was captured by the sum of the four synaptic proteins. We used that sum to compare development of human and rat visual cortex and identified a simple linear equation that provides robust alignment of synaptic age between humans and rats. Alignment of synaptic ages is important for age-appropriate targeting and effective translation of neuroplasticity therapies from the lab to the clinic.
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    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics remain the standard of care for individuals with schizophrenia, despite their association with adverse effects including extrapyramidal symptoms, metabolic syndrome and agranulocytosis. While the biological mechanisms underlying these side effects remain unresolved, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may play a role in their development. The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of oxidative stress associated with first- and second-generation antipsychotics, focusing on protein and lipid oxidation and expression of the antioxidant proteins peroxiredoxin-2 and peroxiredoxin-6. Following 28-day administration of haloperidol, clozapine or saline to adult rats, brain grey matter, white matter, serum and liver samples were obtained and lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, peroxiredoxin-2 and peroxiredoxin-6 levels quantified. In grey matter, peroxiredoxin-6 was significantly increased in the haloperidol-exposed animals, with a trend towards increased lipid peroxidation also observed in this group. In liver, lipid peroxidation was increased in the clozapine-exposed animals, with a similar trend noted in the haloperidol group. Antipsychotics did not produce significant changes in serum or white matter. Our results suggest that haloperidol and clozapine may induce oxidative stress in brain and liver, respectively, consistent with the documented adverse effects of these agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Neuroscience Letters 02/2015; 591. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.02.028 · 2.06 Impact Factor