Calcium deficiency cannot induce obesity in rats.
ABSTRACT If intake of a required nutrient--here calcium--affects body weight, the effect must be mediated by a change in the body weight set-point. Thus, the controversial 'anti-obesity' influence of high calcium intake should decrease the body weight set-point. Diets differing in calcium content were assigned to three groups of rats. The effects of the diets on body weight, BMI, fat content, plasma calcium, body weight set-point, food intake, and preference for various calcium solutions were measured after 6 weeks of calcium deprivation or supplementation, and again after a further 6 weeks of recovery on a regular diet. After 6 weeks, the low-calcium diet had induced calcium deficiency but had failed to raise the body weight set-point. Nor had it produced obesity or fat accumulation. After 6 weeks of recovery, body weight and fat content were no higher in calcium-deprived rats than in the control or supplemented rats. In this experiment, low-calcium intake failed to cause obesity and did not raise the body weight set-point. The results indicate that calcium intake probably does not affect body weight.
Article: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fat mass loss in female very low-calcium consumers: potential link with a calcium-specific appetite control.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to compare the effect of a 15-week weight-reducing programme ( -2900 kJ/d) coupled with a calcium plus vitamin D (calcium+D) supplementation (600 mg elemental calcium and 5 microg vitamin D, consumed twice a day) or with a placebo, on body fat and on spontaneous energy/macronutrient intake. Sixty-three overweight or obese women (mean age 43 years, mean BMI 32 kg/m2) reporting a daily calcium intake < 800 mg participated in present study. Anthropometric variables, resting energy expenditure and spontaneous energy intake were measured before and after the 15-week programme. The calcium+D supplementation induced no statistically significant increase in fat mass loss in response to the programme. However, when analyses were limited to very low-calcium consumers only (initial calcium intake < or =600 mg/d, n 7 for calcium+D, n 6 for placebo), a significant decrease in body weight and fat mass (P < 0.01) and in spontaneous dietary lipid intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the calcium+D but not in the placebo group. In very low-calcium consumers, change in fat mass was positively correlated with change in lipid intake. During the weight-reducing programme, a calcium+D supplementation was necessary in female overweight/obese very low-calcium consumers to reach significant fat mass loss that seemed to be partly explained by a decrease in lipid intake. We propose that this change in lipid intake could be influenced by a calcium-specific appetite control.The British journal of nutrition 03/2009; 101(5):659-63. · 3.45 Impact Factor
Article: Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two studies were conducted to compare characteristics of consumers and non-consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements (study 1) and to assess the effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme (study 2). Body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores were compared between consumers and non-consumers of micronutrients and/or dietary supplements in the Québec Family Study (study 1). In study 2, these variables and appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) were measured in forty-five obese non-consumers of supplements randomly assigned to a double-blind 15-week energy restriction ( - 2930 kJ/d) combined with a placebo or with a multivitamin and mineral supplement. Compared with non-consumers, male consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements had a lower body weight (P < 0.01), fat mass (P < 0.05), BMI (P < 0.05), and a tendency for greater resting energy expenditure (P = 0.06). In women, the same differences were observed but not to a statistically significant extent. In addition, female supplements consumers had lower disinhibition and hunger scores (P < 0.05). In study 2, body weight was significantly decreased after the weight-loss intervention (P < 0.001) with no difference between treatment groups. However, fasting and postprandial appetite ratings were significantly reduced in multivitamin and mineral-supplemented women (P < 0.05). Usual vitamin and/or dietary supplements consumption and multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme seems to have an appetite-related effect in women. However, lower body weight and fat were more detectable in male than in female vitamin and/or dietary supplements consumers.British Journal Of Nutrition 05/2008; 99(5):1157-67. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human epidemiological studies have supported the hypothesis that a dairy food-rich diet is associated with lower fat accumulation, although prospective studies and intervention trials are not so conclusive and contradictory data exist in animal models. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects on body weight and fat depots of dairy calcium (12 g/kg diet) in wild-type mice under ad libitum high-fat (43%) and normal-fat (12%) diets and to gain comprehension on the underlying mechanism of dairy calcium effects. Our results show that calcium intake decreases body weight and body fat depot gain under high-fat diet and accelerates weight loss under normal-fat diet, without differences in food intake. No differences in gene or protein expression of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue or UCP2 in white adipose tissue were found that could be related with calcium feeding, suggesting that calcium intake contributed to modulate body weight in wild-type mice by a mechanism that is not associated with activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. UCP3 protein but not gene expression increased in muscle due to calcium feeding. In white adipose tissue there were effects of calcium intake decreasing the expression of proteins related to calcium signalling, in particular of stanniocalcin 2. CaSR levels could play a role in decreasing cytosolic calcium in adipocytes and, therefore, contribute to the diminution of fat accretion. Results support the anti-obesity effect of dietary calcium in male mice and indicate that, at least at the time-point studied, activation of thermogenesis is not involved.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 03/2008; 19(2):109-17. · 3.89 Impact Factor