Formation of Chloroform and Chlorinated Organics by Free-Chlorine-Mediated Oxidation of Triclosan

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 418 Durham Hall, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060-0361, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 06/2005; 39(9):3176-85. DOI: 10.1021/es048943+
Source: PubMed


The widely used antimicrobial agent triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) readily reacts with free chlorine under drinking water treatment conditions. Overall second-order kinetics were observed, first-order in free chlorine and first-order in triclosan. Over the pH range of 4-11.5, the kinetics were pH sensitive as a result of the pH dependent speciation of both triclosan and free chlorine. Using a Marquardt-Levenberg routine, it was determined that this pH effect indicates that the dominant reaction in this system is between the ionized phenolate form of triclosan and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The overall second-order rate coefficient was determined to be kArO- = 5.40 (+/- 1.82) x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1). Three chlorophenoxyphenols and two chlorophenols were identified by gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. The chlorophenoxyphenol compounds include two monochlorinated triclosan derivatives (5,6-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoy)phenol and 4,5-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) and one dichlorinated derivative (4,5,6-trichloro-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol); these species form via bimolecular electrophilic substitution of triclosan. 2,4-Dichlorophenol was detected under all reaction conditions and forms via ether cleavage of triclosan. In experiments with excess free chlorine, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was formed via electrophilic substitution of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Chloroform formation was observed when an excess of free chlorine was present. A Hammett-type linear free-energy relationship (LFER) using Brown-Okamoto parameters (sigma+) was established to correlate the reactivity of HOCI and the phenolate forms of triclosan and other chlorophenols (log kArO- = -(10.7 +/- 2.2)Sigmasigma(+)o,m,p + 4.43). This LFER was used to obtain estimates of rate coefficients describing the reactivity of the intermediates 5,6-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoy)phenol (kArO- approximately equal to 6 x 10(2)), 4,5-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (kArO- approximately equal to 3 x 10(2)), and 4,5,6-trichloro-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (kArO- approximately equal to 4 x 10(1)).

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    • "It is well known that phenolic compounds, are generally more reactive upon deprotonation . As postulated by Rule et al. (2005), this effect occurs because phenolic AO À is better at activating the aromatic ring toward substitution reactions than AOH. Given that TCS and BPA have a pKa value around 8.1, their degradation at pH values around 10 is increased besides the lower reactivity of hypochlorite anion which results in the decrease of the degradation of other target compounds . "
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    Chemosphere 01/2015; 119(1):S109–S114. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.107 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "fish and algae at ␮g/L level [16] [17]. Moreover, triclosan can react with free chlorine and produce toxic chlorinated phenoxyphenols during water disinfection [18]. Carcinogenic 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) can also be generated during the photolysis of triclosan [19–24]. "
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    • "0, 4.70 Â 10 2 and 0.123 M À1 s À1 , respectively (Dodd and Huang, 2007; Rule et al., 2005; Acero et al., 2010 "
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