Article

Black carbon and ecological factors affect in situ biota to sediment accumulation factors for hydrophobic organic compounds in flood plain lakes

Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Post Office Box 8080, 6700 DD Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 06/2005; 39(9):3101-9. DOI: 10.1021/es048079l
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ecological factors may play an important role in the bioaccumulation of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Geochemical and bioaccumulation behavior of these chemicals also appears to be related to the presence of black carbon (BC) in sediment. In situ PCB and PAH biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for benthic invertebrates, as well as 6h Tenax-extractable (fast-desorbing) concentrations and lake characteristics (including BC in sediment), were determined for different seasons in chemically similar but ecologically different lakes (fish-dominated turbid, algae-dominated turbid, and macrophyte-dominated). BSAFs could be explained with a model including a term for Freundlich sorption to BC and a term for uptake from fast-desorbing concentrations in ingested sediments. Freundlich coefficients for in situ sorption to BC (KF) were calculated from slow desorbing fractions and BC contents and agreed well with literature values for KF. Furthermore, in contrast to BSAFs based on total extracted concentrations, Tenax-based BSAF showed a strong positive correlation with log Kow. We therefore argue that BC caused slow desorption and limited BSAFs in these lakes. Seasonal and lake effects on BSAFs were detected, while the differences between oligochaetes and other invertebrates were small for PCBs and within a factor of 10 for PAHs. BSAFs for pyrogenic PAHs were much lower than for PCBs, which was explained by stronger sorption to BC and lesser uptake from ingested sediment.

Full-text

Available from: Gertjan Zwolsman, Jun 06, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
107 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations and profiles in paired sediment–plankton samples were determined along a 500 km transect in coastal British Columbia, Canada. PCB and PBDE levels in sediment were both greater in the industrialized Strait of Georgia than in remote northern sites and exhibited parallel spatial trends. In plankton, recent-use PBDE levels were higher near-source, while levels of legacy PCBs were uniform across sites. Principal component analysis of 95 PCB congeners illustrated the influence of proximity to source (i.e., latitude) on congener patterns for both matrices (sediment, r2 = 0.52, p = 0.012; plankton, r2 = 0.59, p = 0.016). The PCB pattern in plankton grew lighter with latitude, but the opposite pattern in sediments suggested that temperature-related fractionation, sediment processes, and basin-wide oceanography had divergent effects on each matrix. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were greater for PBDEs than PCBs, but spatial profiles were similar; PCBs and PBDEs were near equilibrium in remote atmospherically driven sites (BSAF = 1.7 and 1.3) but accumulated preferentially in sediments at source-driven sites (BSAF = 0.2 and 0.4). The influences of particle-binding and hydrophobicity on the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs was evident by the strong influence of log KOW on congener-specific BSAFs (PCBs, r2 = 0.18 p < 0.001; PBDEs, r2 = 0.61 p < 0.001). While biotic uptake of PCBs has become spatially uniform in coastal BC because of dilution over time, biomagnification of PBDEs remains higher in industrialized waters.
    Environmental Science and Technology 06/2014; 48(12):6981–6988. DOI:10.1021/es500218b · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Solid-phase extraction with Tenax® is one of the most used methods for determining the fraction of a pollutant that desorbs rapidly from sediment and thus is available for living beings. In the present study, this technique has been applied to sediment contaminated in the laboratory with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodifenyldichloroethylene, and dichlorodifenyldichloroethane (generically, DDXs). The amount of chemical retained in sediment during the time of the experiment fit well with a three-phase exponential desorption model. The ratios between the rapidly desorbing fraction and the fraction desorbed during a fixed time (6 or 24 h) were calculated. The fraction desorbed in 6 h was lower than the rapidly desorbing fraction for most of PBDEs, whereas the fraction desorbed in 24 h exceeded the rapidly desorbing fraction for both groups of compounds. However, variability of these data suggests, when possible, a long time measure of desorption in order to achieve a more accurate estimation. Both the extent and the velocity of desorption were inversely related with the bromination degree and, consistently, with hydrophobicity and molecular size. In this way, low brominated PBDEs and DDXs showed a high availability relative to high brominated PBDEs.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2008; 27(6). DOI:10.1897/07-513.1 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ex situ solid phase extraction with granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising technique to remediate contaminated sediments. The methods' efficiency depends on the rate by which contaminants are transferred from the sediment to the surface of GAC. Here, we derive kinetic parameters for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from sediment by GAC, using a first-order multi-compartment kinetic model. The parameters were obtained by modeling sediment-GAC exchange kinetic data following a tiered model calibration approach. First, parameters for PAH desorption from sediment were calibrated using data from systems with 50% (by weight) GAC acting as an infinite sink. Second, the estimated parameters were used as fixed input to obtain GAC uptake kinetic parameters in sediment slurries with 4% GAC, representing the ex situ remediation scenario. PAH uptake rate constants (kGAC) by GAC ranged from 0.44 to 0.0005 d(-1), whereas GAC sorption coefficients (KGAC) ranged from 10(5.57) to 10(8.57) L kg(-1). These values are the first provided for GAC in the presence of sediment and show that ex situ extraction with GAC is sufficiently fast and effective to reduce the risks of the most available PAHs among those studied, such as fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene.
    Water Research 12/2013; 51C:86-95. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2013.12.025 · 5.32 Impact Factor