Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene at a former industrial contaminated site
ABSTRACT Measured concentrations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) in soil and groundwater detected in an industrial contaminated site were used to test several probabilistic options for refining site-specific ecological risks assessment, ranging from comparison of single effects and exposure values through comparison of probabilistic distributions for exposure and effects to the use of distribution based quotients (DBQs) obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. The results of the deterministic approach, which suggest that risk exceeds a level of concern for soil organisms, were influenced mainly by the presence of hot spots reaching concentrations able to affect acutely a large proportion of species, while the large majority of the area presents 1,2,4-TCB concentrations below those reported as toxic. Ground-(pore)water concentrations were compared with aquatic ecotoxicity data in orderto obtain an estimation of the potential risk for aquifers and streams in the adjacent area as well as for soil-dwelling organisms exposed via pore water. In this case, the risk is distributed over a large proportion of the site, while the local risk of hot spots was low, showing that risk characterization based exclusively on soil concentrations might be insufficient.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to conduct a probabilistic assessment of risk posed by copper found in the coastal marine environment of China from 2005 to 2012. This was achieved by applying a tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach for characterization of risks of concentrations of copper from nationwide marine water monitoring program. The results show that from 2005 to 2012 the overall trend of hazard quotients (HQs) in the coastal marine environment of China the proportion of locations that exceed a HQ of 1.0 decreased from 64% in 2005 to 31% in 2012. While this indicates an overall improvement of the environment, there still have potential ecological risks in the most of the area, especially for the major gulfs of Liaodong and Bohai Bays and Yellow River Estuary. In addition, probabilities of exceeding the toxicity threshold for 5% of species were 27.6%, 5.4%, 4.9%, 0.8%, 0.4%, 1.0%, 1.8% and 0.12% annually between 2005 and 2012, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Marine Pollution Bulletin 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.03.005 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A screening level human health risk assessment based on the worst-case scenario was conducted on the occupational and residential exposures to Dechlorane Plus (DP) in the manufacturing facility region and an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site in China, which are two of the most polluted areas of DP in the world. Total estimated exposure dose (EED) via dietary, dermal, and inhalation was approximately 0.01 mg kg-1 d-1 for people living in the manufacturing facility region. In comparison, total EEDs (approximate 0.03 μg kg-1, d-1) were 300-fold lower in people living near an e-waste recycling site in China. Chronic oral, dermal, and inhalation reference doses (RfDs) were estimated to be 5.0, 2.0, and 0.01 mg kg-1 d-1, respectively. The oral RfD was markedly greater than Mirex (2×10-4 mg kg-1 d-1) and Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209; 7×10-3 mg kg-1 d-1), which have been or might be replaced by DP as a flame retardant with less toxicity. Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate the probability densities and functions for the hazard index which was calculated from the EEDs and RfDs to assess the human health risk. The hazard index was three orders of magnitude lower than 1, suggesting occupational and residential exposures were relatively safe in the manufacturing facility region and e-waste recycling site.Science of The Total Environment 05/2013; 445. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.12.059 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ecological risks posed by three chlorophenols (CPs), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Chinese surface waters were assessed. This was achieved by applying a tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach ranging from deterministic methods to probabilistic options to measured concentrations of CPs in surface water of seven major watersheds and three drainage regions in China and the chronic toxicity data for indigenous Chinese species. The results show that the risks of three chlorophenols are ranked PCP>2,4-DCP≈2,4,6-TCP. PCP posed little ecological risk while 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP posed negligible or de minimis risk in Chinese surface water. However, the risks varied with different river basins, for example, PCP posed some ecological risk in the Yangtze, Huaihe, and Pearl Rivers. The magnitude of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP pollution in North China was more serious than that in South China. The probabilistic risk assessment approach, which can provide more information for risk managers and decision makers, was favored over the screening-level single-value estimate method. However, the results from all tiers of the ERA methods in the framework were consistent with each other.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2011; 19(5):1544-54. DOI:10.1007/s11356-011-0660-8 · 2.76 Impact Factor