The relationship between primary care antibiotic prescribing and bacterial resistance in adults in the community: a controlled observational study using individual patient data.
ABSTRACT To examine the relationship between primary care prescribed antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance in perineal flora contaminating unselected urinary isolates from a large sample of asymptomatic adults representative of the general community.
Escherichia coli isolates contaminating urine samples were obtained from asymptomatic adults aged >16 years registered with general practices in the former Avon and Gloucestershire health authority areas. Data on antibiotic exposure during the 12 months prior to providing the urine samples were collected from the primary care electronic and paper medical records. The main outcome measure was resistance to amoxicillin or trimethoprim or both.
Two thousand nine hundred and forty-three adults submitted urine samples. Susceptibility among E. coli isolates and antibiotic prescribing data were available from 618 patients. We found no evidence of an association between resistance and patients' exposure to any antibiotic prescribed in primary care in the previous 12 months [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.77-1.65, P = 0.52]. Secondary analyses demonstrated greater resistance in patients exposed to antibiotics within 2 months (adjusted OR 1.95, 1.08-3.49, P = 0.03), a dose-response relationship to increasing exposure to trimethoprim in the previous 12 months (adjusted OR 1.01, 1.01-1.02, P = 0.001) and that individuals who had been prescribed any beta-lactam antibiotic in the previous 12 months had amoxicillin MICs more than twice (adjusted 95% CI 1.23-3.31, P = 0.009) that of those who had not been prescribed any beta-lactams.
Whether or not adults receive a prescription for any antibiotic during a 12 month period does not appear to influence the antimicrobial resistance of perineal flora. However, the temporal and dose-response relationships found may be suggestive of a causative association and should be the focus of further research.
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ABSTRACT: We have been aware for decades - perhaps as a somewhat far-off theoretical problem - that antibiotic resistance is a threat to healthcare worldwide. However, the crisis is now here and very real. Each year in Europe alone, 25 000 deaths are directly attributed to antibiotic resistance. New antibiotics are not being produced fast enough, and resistance means we are running out of antibiotics of last resort.Australian family physician 11/2012; 41(11):839-40. · 0.71 Impact Factor
- British Journal of General Practice 04/2013; 63(609):175-6. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that primary care prescribed antibiotics lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing minor infections or being carried by asymptomatic adults, but little research to date has investigated links between primary care prescribed antibiotics and resistance among more serious infections requiring hospital care. Knowledge of these effects is likely to have a major influence on public expectations for, and primary care use of, antibiotics. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of recruiting symptomatic adult patients admitted to hospital with urinary infections and to link primary and secondary data information to investigate the relationship between primary care prescribed antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in these patients. A microbiology database search of in patients who had submitted a urine sample identified 740 patients OPEN ACCESS Antibiotics 2014, 3 30 who were potentially eligible to take part in the study. Of these, 262 patients did not meet the eligibility criteria, mainly due to use of a urinary catheter (40%). Two-hundred and forty three patients could not be recruited as the nurse was unable to visit the patients prior to discharge, as they were too unwell. Eighty patients provided complete information. Results indicate that there is evidence that prior antibiotic use is associated with resistant infections in hospital patients. A fully powered study, conducted using routinely collected data is proposed to fully clarify the precision of the association.01/2014; 3:29-38.