Article

Cladribine therapy in a patient with an aleukemic subvariant of mast cell leukemia.

Annals of Hematology (Impact Factor: 2.87). 11/2005; 84(10):692-3. DOI: 10.1007/s00277-005-1057-x
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    ABSTRACT: Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of aggressive systemic mastocytosis accounting for less than 1% of all mastocytosis. It may appear de novo or secondary to previous mastocytosis and shares more clinicopathological aspects with systemic mastocytosis than with acute myeloid leukemia. Symptoms of mast cell activation, involvement of the liver, spleen, peritoneum, bones and marrow are frequent. Diagnosis is based on the presence of ≥ 20% atypical mast cells in the marrow or ≥ 10% in the blood; however, an aleukemic variant is frequently encountered in which the number of circulating MCs is < 10%. The common phenotypic features of pathologic mast cells encountered in most forms of mastocytosis are unreliable in MCL. Unexpectedly, non KIT D816V mutations are frequent and therefore, complete gene sequencing is necessary. Therapy usually fails and the median survival time is less than 6 months. The role of combination therapies and bone marrow transplantation needs further investigation.
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    ABSTRACT: DISEASE OVERVIEW: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in one or more extracutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of morphologically abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC expression of CD25 and/or CD2, and presence of KITD816V. RISK STRATIFICATION: The prognostic relevance of the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of SM has recently been confirmed. Classification of SM patients into indolent (SM), aggressive SM (ASM), SM associated with a clonal non-MC lineage disease (SM-AHNMD), and mast cell leukemia (MCL) subgroups is a useful first step in establishing prognosis. Risk-adapted therapy: SM treatment is generally palliative. ISM patients have a normal life expectancy and receive symptom-directed therapy; infrequently, cytoreductive therapy may be indicated for refractory symptoms. ASM patients have disease-related organ dysfunction; interferon-α (±corticosteroids) can control dermatological, hematological, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and mediator-release symptoms, but is hampered by poor tolerability. Similarly, cladribine has broad therapeutic activity, with particular utility when rapid MC debulking is indicated; the main toxicity is myelosuppression. Imatinib has a therapeutic role in the presence of an imatinib-sensitive KIT mutation or in KITD816-unmutated patients. Treatment of SM-AHNMD is governed primarily by the non-MC neoplasm; hydroxyurea has modest utility in this setting. Dasatinib's in vitro anti- KITD816V activity has not translated into significant therapeutic activity in most SM patients. In contrast, preliminary data suggest that Midostaurin may produce significant decreases in MC burden in some patients.
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    ABSTRACT: DISEASE OVERVIEW: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in one or more extra-cutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of morphologically abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC expression of CD25 and/or CD2, and presence of KITD816V. RISK STRATIFICATION: The prognostic relevance of the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of SM has recently been confirmed. Classification of SM patients into indolent (SM), aggressive SM (ASM), SM associated with a clonal non-MC lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) and mast cell leukemia (MCL) subgroups is a useful first step in establishing prognosis. MANAGEMENT: SM treatment is generally palliative. ISM patients have a normal life expectancy and receive symptom-directed therapy; infrequently, cytoreductive therapy may be indicated for refractory symptoms. ASM patients have disease-related organ dysfunction; interferon-α (±corticosteroids) can control dermatological, hematological, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and mediator-release symptoms, but is hampered by poor tolerability. Similarly, cladribine has broad therapeutic activity, with particular utility when rapid MC debulking is indicated; the main toxicity is myelosuppression. Imatinib has a therapeutic role in the presence of an imatinib-sensitive KIT mutation or in KITD816-unmutated patients. Treatment of SM-AHNMD is governed primarily by the non-MC neoplasm; hydroxyurea has modest utility in this setting. INVESTIGATIONAL DRUGS: Dasatinib's in vitro anti-KITD816V activity has not translated into significant therapeutic activity in most SM patients. In contrast, preliminary data suggest that Midostaurin may produce significant decreases in MC burden in some patients.
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