Prevention of cardiovascular disease through diet and lifestyle change is strongly advocated in adults and is initiated preferably during childhood. The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) was a multicenter, collaborative, randomized trial in 663 preadolescent children (363 boys and 301 girls) with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, designed to test the efficacy and safety of a dietary intervention to lower saturated-fat and cholesterol intake while also advocating a healthy eating pattern. DISC results have been published extensively. This ancillary study reports new data regarding changes in eating patterns among this cohort.
We set out to compare children's self-selected eating patterns and approaches to achieving adherence to the DISC fat-reduced diet intervention with children in the usual-care group.
An ancillary study was conducted to develop a detailed food-grouping system and report new analyses on dietary adherence to the recommended eating pattern. Every food in the nutrient database was ranked by its saturated-fat and cholesterol content and classified within its relevant food group as a "go" (less atherogenic) or "whoa" (more atherogenic) food.
At baseline, go foods contributed approximately 57% of total energy intake and 12.4% to 13.1% total fat energy intake in both groups. At 3 years, go foods contributed 67.4% and 13.7% of total and fat energy intake, respectively, in the intervention group versus 56.8% and 12.8% in the usual-care group. Differences between the 2 treatment groups were significant for changes in consumption of dairy foods, desserts, and fats/oils, with the intervention group reporting a 0.2- to 0.3-serving-per-day greater increase in go foods than the usual-care group. The intervention group also reported a 0.2- to 0.8-serving-per-day greater decrease in whoa foods than the usual-care group for breads/grains, dairy, fats/oils, meat/fish/poultry, snacks, and vegetables. Overall, snack foods, desserts, and pizza contributed approximately one third of total daily energy intake in both groups at 3 years.
Children in the intervention group reported consuming more servings per day of go grains, dairy, meats, and vegetable foods compared with children in the usual-care group, but intake of fruits and vegetables was low in both groups. Discovering that snacks, desserts, and pizza actively contribute so heavily to the diets of this age group, even among children who were part of this intervention, offers valuable insights regarding the need for more aggressive, innovative, and realistic approaches for additional dietary counseling.
"There is a growing body of research seeking to determine whether interventions aimed at weight loss can successfully change obese individuals' reactivity to food cues. Some studies have shown that behavioral interventions aimed at reducing fat intake can decrease individuals' motivation to consume high fat foods (Grieve and Vander Weg, 2003; Jansen et al., 2010; Ledikwe et al., 2007; Martin et al., 2011; Van Horn et al., 2005), raising the possibility of reduced reactivity to cues associated with such foods. Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies of successful dieters, or post-obese individuals, in comparison to normal-weight individuals, have yielded mixed results regarding responses of reward areas to visual or gustatory food cues (Cornier et al., 2009; Del Parigi et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behavioral studies have suggested that food cues have stronger motivating effects in obese than in normal-weight individuals, which may be a risk factor underlying obesity. Previous cross-sectional neuroimaging studies have suggested that this difference is mediated by increased reactivity to food cues in parts of the reward system in obese individuals. To date, however, only a few prospective neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine whether individual differences in brain activation elicited by food cues can predict differences in weight change. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate activation in reward-system as well as other brain regions in response to viewing high-calorie food vs. control pictures in 25 obese individuals before and after a 12-week psychosocial weight-loss treatment and at 9-mo follow-up. In those obese individuals who were least successful in losing weight during the treatment, we found greater pre-treatment activation to high-calorie food vs. control pictures in brain regions implicated in reward-system processes, such as the nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate, and insula. We found similar correlations with weight loss in brain regions implicated by other studies in vision and attention, such as superior occipital cortex, inferior and superior parietal lobule, and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, less successful weight maintenance at 9-mo follow-up was predicted by greater post-treatment activation in such brain regions as insula, ventral tegmental area, putamen, and fusiform gyrus. In summary, we found that greater activation in brain regions mediating motivational and attentional salience of food cues in obese individuals at the start of a weight-loss program was predictive of less success in the program and that such activation following the program predicted poorer weight control over a 9-mo follow-up period.
"In obese children 8 yr or older, the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) intervention diet can be introduced without compromising growth, development and pubertal maturity73. This diet distributes 58 per cent of total calorie intake to carbohydrates, 28 per cent to fats and 14 per cent to protein. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research 11/2010; 132(5):598-607. · 1.40 Impact Factor
"The dietary causes of obesity are complex and poorly understood. Although energy intake and eating patterns have been implicated in obesity (McDonald et al., 2009; van Horn et al., 2005), few attempts have been made to identify patterns of beverage consumption in this regard. Recently the energy intake from beverages, especially sweetened beverages has increased among children (French et al., 2003; Nielsen & Popkin, 2004; O'Connor et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the beverage consumption by gender and season in elementary school children and to investigate the role of beverage consumption patterns on their daily nutrient intakes and BMIs. Beverage consumption and dietary energy intake in 160 elementary school students in the Gyeongnam area were measured by a beverage frequency and quantity questionnaire and three 24-hour dietary recalls during winter and summer. The number of drinking moments per month, the amounts of beverage per day, and the energy from beverage consumption were not different between winter and summer. In summer, the contribution of energy from sweetened beverage to the daily energy intake in girls accounted for 13.5% which was significantly higher compared to 7.7% in boys. In girls, the consumption of health beverage showed a significant correlation with various nutrient intakes in winter. Meanwhile, the sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with energy, protein, vitamin A and niacin intake in summer. Consumption of most of the beverages, including sweetened beverages, were not related with BMI in both sexes and both seasons, except functional drinks which were related with BMI in boys in winter.
Nutrition research and practice 09/2009; 3(3):234-41. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2009.3.3.234 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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