Risperidone has been found efficacious for decreasing severe tantrums, aggression, and self-injurious behavior in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (autism). The authors report on whether risperidone improves the core symptoms of autism, social and communication impairment and repetitive and stereotyped behavior.
The database from an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N=101) and 16-week open-label continuation study (N=63) of risperidone for children and adolescents with autism was used to test for drug effects on secondary outcome measures: scores on the Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale, the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and the maladaptive behavior domain of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.
Compared to placebo, risperidone led to a significantly greater reduction in the overall score on the Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale, as well as the scores on the subscales for sensory motor behaviors (subscale I), affectual reactions (subscale III), and sensory responses (subscale IV). No statistically significant difference was observed, however, on the subscale for social relatedness (subscale II) or language (subscale V). Risperidone also resulted in significantly greater reductions in scores on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Vineland maladaptive behavior domain. This pattern of treatment response was maintained for 6 months.
Risperidone led to significant improvements in the restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities of autistic children but did not significantly change their deficit in social interaction and communication. Further research is necessary to develop effective treatments for the core social and communicative impairments of autism.
"Currently, the FDA has only approved the use of the atypical antipsychotics risperidone and aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability in ASD patients [Canitano & Scandurra, 2011; Politte & McDougle, 2014; Rosenbaum, Hyman, Labbate, & Fava, 2005; see McPheeters et al., 2011, for a review]. Risperidone has also been shown to improve clinical ratings of RRBs in ASD while being ineffective at reducing social impairments [McDougle et al., 2005]. Less is known about whether risperidone may be effective in reducing cognitive inflexibility in ASD. "
"This observation is similar to the effects of BA and VPA in PC12 cells we reported before , . Furthermore, it provides a possible molecular mechanism to account for the hyperactivation of the mesocortical dopamine system suggested in several clinical reports of ASD ,  and in animal models of ASD , . Other 4 carbon structures (i.e. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) like propionic (PPA), and butyric acid (BA), which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal) or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s) was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals such as increased levels of SCFA's can epigenetically modulate cell function further supporting their role as environmental contributors to ASD.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103740. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103740 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Current pharmacological treatment approaches for social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorders utilize drugs which are also used to treat other psychiatric disorders (e.g., anxiety and depression) (Gordon et al., 1993; Stein et al., 1998; Fedoroff and Taylor, 2001; Malone et al., 2002; Rodebaugh et al., 2004). In addition, treatments for autism are often ineffective at treating social pathologies (McDougle et al., 2005; but see Hollander et al., 2007; Andari et al., 2010). These data call for a better understanding of the neural correlates underlying these disorders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many psychiatric illnesses are characterized by deficits in the social domain. For example, there is a high rate of co-morbidity between autism spectrum disorders and anxiety disorders. However, the common neural circuit mechanisms by which social deficits and other psychiatric disease states, such as anxiety, are co-expressed remains unclear. Here, we review optogenetic investigations of neural circuits in animal models of anxiety-related behaviors and social behaviors and discuss the important role of the amygdala in mediating aspects of these behaviors. In particular, we focus on recent evidence that projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) modulate anxiety-related behaviors and also alter social interaction. Understanding how this circuit influences both social behavior and anxiety may provide a mechanistic explanation for the pathogenesis of social anxiety disorder, as well as the prevalence of patients co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and anxiety disorders. Furthermore, elucidating how circuits that modulate social behavior also mediate other complex emotional states will lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which social deficits are expressed in psychiatric disease.
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