Immune Responses to Ethanol Metabolites and Cytokine Profiles Differentiate Alcoholics with or without Liver Disease.
ABSTRACT Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with the generation of antibodies against neoantigens induced by ethanol metabolism. However, the associations between such immune responses, ethanol consumption, and liver injury remain unclear.
Eight-six male alcoholics with (n=54) or without (n=32) liver disease, and 20 male volunteers (6 abstainers, 14 moderate drinkers) underwent clinical, morphological, and biochemical assessments of liver status and ethanol consumption.
Antiacetaldehyde adduct IgAs in both groups of alcoholics were significantly higher than those in the controls. Elevated IgGs occurred in patients with liver disease, whereas IgMs were high in the heavy drinkers without apparent liver disease. Liver disease patients had high levels of both proinflammatory (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha) and antiinflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, whereas those without liver disease showed elevated IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 only. Ethanol consumption correlated significantly with antiadduct IgA and IL-6 levels, which also showed parallel changes upon abstinence.
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with the generation of IgAs and IgGs against acetaldehyde-derived antigens and enhanced levels of both pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines, whereas elevated IgA, IL-6, and IL-10 characterize alcoholics without liver disease. These data suggest that immunological mechanisms may play a role in the sequence of events leading to liver disease in some patients with excessive drinking.
- SourceAvailable from: Masao Fujimoto
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- "IL-6 and IL-10 are two cytokines that play roles in reducing alcoholic liver injury and inflammation through activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) . Elevated IL-6 is found in chronic alcohol-fed animals and in alcoholics, with or without liver disease . On the other hand, IL-6 knockout mice fed chronic alcohol showed increased liver fat accumulation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial DNA damage, and sensitization of hepatocytes to TNF-í µí»¼ induced apoptosis, which was prevented by the administration of recombinant IL-6   . "
ABSTRACT: Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the world. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to hepatocellular injury and liver inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, induce liver injury in the rat model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Hepatoprotective cytokines, such as IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, are also associated with ALD. IL-6 improves ALD via activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the subsequent induction of a variety of hepatoprotective genes in hepatocytes. IL-10 inhibits alcoholic liver inflammation via activation of STAT3 in Kupffer cells and the subsequent inhibition of liver inflammation. Alcohol consumption promotes liver inflammation by increasing translocation of gut-derived endotoxins to the portal circulation and activating Kupffer cells through the LPS/Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathways. Oxidative stress and microflora products are also associated with ALD. Interactions between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and other cytokines and chemokines are likely to play important roles in the development of ALD. The present study aims to conduct a systemic review of ALD from the aspect of inflammation.Mediators of Inflammation 12/2013; 2013:495156. DOI:10.1155/2013/495156 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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- "In animal studies, alcohol induced Kupffer cell to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (Kono et al., 2000; Zhou et al., 2003). Elevated TNF-alpha has been reported in patients with alcohol dependence, especially those with alcohol-induced liver disease (Latvala et al., 2005), and is correlated with liver function impairment (Gonzalez-Quintela et al., 2008). Systemic TNF-alpha in patients with alcohol dependence can be transported from serum to the brain (Banks, 2005) and activate inflammatory responses (Qin et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the mechanisms of alcohol-induced brain shrinkage and alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between liver function and brain volume (BV) measurements in patients with alcohol dependence. We recruited 124 patients with alcohol dependence and 111 healthy control subjects from National Institute of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism inpatient alcohol treatment program. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as hematocrit (Hct) and albumin were assayed shortly after admission. Magnetic resonance imaging examination was conducted in both groups (after 3-week abstinence in the patient group). We used stepwise linear regression analyses to determine the variables most strongly correlated with brain shrinkage. Patients with alcohol dependence had lower BV, and greater brain shrinkage as measured by gray matter ratio (GMR), white matter ratio (WMR), brain ratio (BR), and higher cerebrospinal fluid ratio ratio (CSFR) compared with their healthy counterparts. Age and sex were significantly correlated with some BV measurements in both patient and control groups. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly correlated with CSFR, BR, GMR, and WMR; Hct with CSFR and BR; serum GGT level with BV, CSFR, BR, GMR, and WMF in the patient group. No biological variables were correlated with BV indices in the control group. In gender-stratified analysis, age was significantly correlated with brain shrinkage in male patients but not in female patients. Serum GGT level in male and female patients, Hct in male patients, and AST levels in female patients were significantly correlated with brain shrinkage. Our results showed that the higher levels of liver function indices, especially GGT, correlated with BV shrinkage as measured using CSFR, BR, GMR, and WMR in patients with alcohol dependence but not in controls. Serum GGT level outweighed aging effect on brain shrinkage in female patients.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 10/2011; 36(4):625-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01662.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
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- "On the other hand, CYP2E1 inhibition has been reported to inhibit both ethanol-induced alterations in cytokine expression and liver pathology (Morimoto et al., 1995; Albano et al., 1996; Fang et al. 1998; Gouilon et al., 2000). Over expression of ADH also results in hepatocyte toxicity and acetaldehyde both inhibits hepatocyte proliferation (Lieber, 2004; Clemens, 2007) and generates protein adducts (Latavala et al., 2005). "
ABSTRACT: The importance of ethanol metabolism in the development of alcoholic liver disease remains controversial. The present study examined the effects of selective inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 compared with the inhibition of overall ethanol metabolism on the development of alcoholic steatohepatitis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed via total enteral nutrition for 45 days with or without 10-12g/kg/d ethanol. Some groups were given 200mg/kg/d of the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl sulfide (DAS). Other groups were treated with 164mg/kg/d of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and dosed at 2-3g/kg/d ethanol to maintain similar average urine ethanol concentrations. Liver pathology scores and levels of apoptosis were elevated by ethanol (P<.05) but did not differ significantly on cotreatment with DAS or 4-MP. However, liver triglycerides were lower when ethanol-fed rats were treated with DAS or 4-MP (P<.05). Serum alanine aminotransferase values were significantly lower in ethanol-fed 4-MP-treated rats indicating reduced necrosis. Hepatic oxidative stress and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker tribbles-related protein 3 were increased after ethanol (P<.05); further increased by DAS but partly attenuated by 4-MP. Both DAS and 4-MP reversed ethanol increases in the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the chemokine CXCL-2 (P<.05). However, neither inhibitors prevented ethanol suppression of interleukins IL-4 or IL-12. Moreover, neither inhibitors prevented ethanol increases in tumor growth factor-beta mRNA. Ethanol and DAS additively induced hepatic hyperplasia (P<.05). These data suggest that a significant proportion of hepatic injury after ethanol exposure is independent of alcohol metabolism. Ethanol metabolism by CYP2E1 may be linked in part to triglyceride accumulation, to induction of TNF-alpha, and to chemokine production. Ethanol metabolism by ADH may be linked in part to oxidative and ER stress and necrotic injury.Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 03/2010; 44(2):157-69. DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2009.11.002 · 2.04 Impact Factor