The X4 phenotype of HIV type 1 evolves from R5 in two children of mothers, carrying X4, and is not linked to transmission.

Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.46). 06/2005; 21(5):371-8. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2005.21.371
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previously, we found that emergence of the X4 viral phenotype in HIV-1-infected children was related to the presence of X4 in their mothers (C.H. Casper et al., J Infect Dis 2002; 186:914-921). Here, we investigated the origin of the X4 phenotype in the child, analyzing two mother-child pairs (Ma-Ca, Mb-Cb) where the mothers carried X4 and their children developed X4 after an initial presence of R5. We used nested polymerase chain reaction of the env V3 region to generate 203 HIV-1 clones for sequencing (Ma, n = 44; Ca, n = 73; Mb, n = 61; Cb, n = 25) from DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) lysates, altogether 167 clones, or from cDNA of plasma RNA, 36 clones. PBMC and plasma isolate sequences from each time point enabled us to assign the probable phenotype to clone sequences in a phylogenetic tree. The transmission and evolution were reconstructed using the maximum likelihood method. In mother-child pair Ma-Ca, one maternal R5 isolate clustered with the child's R5 sequences, at the earliest time when R5 was isolated in the child, confirming this as a likely source of the transmitted R5 phenotype. At age 3, an X4 population was present in the child that had evolved from the child's own R5-associated population, clearly distinct from the maternal X4 sequences. The second mother-child pair (Mb-Cb) displayed a similar pattern. Amino acid substitution patterns corroborated the conclusions from the phylogenetic tree. Thus, in both children, the X4 virus developed from their own R5 population, and was not caused by transmission of X4.

Download full-text


Available from: Lars Navér, Jul 06, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genotypes and biological phenotypes of HIV-1 isolates obtained from 40 perinatally infected children in South Africa were analyzed. This included 15 infants who had HIV-related symptoms, most of whom died within 2 years of birth (rapid progressors), and 25 children who survived between 4 and 9 years with varying signs of disease (slow progressors). Heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analysis confirmed that within the env and gag regions, all isolates were HIV-1 subtype C. Viral isolates from 14 of the 15 rapid progressors used the CCR5 coreceptor, whereas 1 (02ZARP1) used both the CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors. Among the 25 slow progressors, 22 isolates used CCR5 only, 2 used CXCR4 only, and 1 used both CCR5 and CXCR4. Two of the slow-progressing children who harbored CXCR4-using viruses had AIDS. All four CXCR4-using viruses had genotypic changes in the V3 region previously shown to be associated with CXCR4 usage. This cross-sectional study shows that HIV-1 subtype C viruses from both rapid- and slow-progressing perinatally infected children used predominantly CCR5. Similar to adults, CXCR4 usage was uncommon among HIV-1 subtype C isolates from pediatric infections.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 06/2006; 22(5):458-65. DOI:10.1089/aid.2006.22.458 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During HIV-1 infection coreceptor switch from CCR5- (R5)- to CXCR4 (X4)-using viruses is associated with disease progression. X4 strains of HIV-1 are highly cytopathic to immature thymocytes. Virtually no studies have evaluated the HIV-1 quasispecies present in vivo within thymic and lymphoid tissues or the evolutionary relationship between R5 and X4 viruses in tissues and peripheral blood. High-resolution phylodynamic analysis was applied to virus envelope quasispecies in longitudinal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues collected post mortem from therapy naïve children with AIDS. There were three major findings. First, continued evolution of R5 viruses in PBMCs, spleen and lymph nodes involved multiple bottlenecks, independent of coreceptor switch, resulting in fitter quasispecies driven by positive selection. Second, evolution of X4 strains appeared to be a sequential process requiring the initial fixation of positively selected mutations in V1-V2 and C2 domains of R5 variants before the emergence of high charge V3 X4 variants. Third, R5 viruses persisted after the emergence of CXCR4-using strains, which were found predominantly but not exclusively in the thymus. Our data indicate that the evolution of X4 strains is a multi-step, temporally structured process and that the thymus may play an important role in the evolution/amplification of coreceptor variants. Development of new therapeutic protocols targeting virus in the thymus could be important to control HIV-1 infection prior to advanced disease.
    PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(9):e950. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0000950 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the HIV infection several quasispecies of the virus arise, which are able to use different coreceptors, in particular the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors (R5 and X4 phenotypes, respectively). The switch in coreceptor usage has been correlated with a faster progression of the disease to the AIDS phase. As several pharmaceutical companies are starting large phase III trials for R5 and X4 drugs, models are needed to predict the co-evolutionary and competitive dynamics of virus strains. We present a model of HIV early infection which describes the dynamics of R5 quasispecies and a model of HIV late infection which describes the R5 to X4 switch. We report the following findings: after superinfection (multiple infections at different times) or coinfection (simultaneous infection by different strains), quasispecies dynamics has time scales of several months and becomes even slower at low number of CD4+ T cells. Phylogenetic inference of chemokine receptors suggests that viral mutational pathway may generate a large variety of R5 variants able to interact with chemokine receptors different from CXCR4. The decrease of CD4+ T cells, during AIDS late stage, can be described taking into account the X4-related Tumor Necrosis Factor dynamics. The results of this study bridge the gap between the within-patient and the inter-patients (i.e. world-wide) evolutionary processes during HIV infection and may represent a framework relevant for modeling vaccination and therapy.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 02/2007; 7 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S5. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-7-S2-S5 · 3.41 Impact Factor