Toll-like receptors: linking innate and adaptive immunity
ABSTRACT Work in recent years has shown an essential role for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the activation of innate and adaptive immunity in vertebrate animals. These germ-line encoded receptors, expressed on a diverse variety of cells and tissues, recognize conserved molecular products derived from various classes of pathogens, including Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, DNA and RNA viruses, fungi and protozoa. Ligand recognition induces a conserved host defense program, which includes production of inflammatory cytokines, upregulation of costimulatory molecules, and induction of antimicrobial defenses. Importantly, activation of dendritic cells by TLR ligands is necessary for their maturation and consequent ability to initiate adaptive immune responses. How responses are tailored by individual TLRs to contain specific classes of pathogens is not yet clear.
SourceAvailable from: Jalil Mehrzad[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen-presenting cells (APC) that are important for innate and acquired immune responses. Owing to their involvement in autoinflammation, autoimmunity and cancer, DC are useful cellular models for biomedical research. Appropriate DC production in vitro could aid the study of DC in many human diseases. We used fluorochrome-based flow cytometry assays to analyze the effects of culture period and maturation of monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) on their viability and necrosis, purity, CD11c expression and phagocytic capacity. The morphological changes that occur as purified monocytes become DC were assessed at 24 and 72 h, and 6 and 9 days in culture. The dynamics of certain cell surface markers of monocytes and mature MoDC (mMoDC) also were assessed using fluorescence-based assays. We found that day 6 of culture yielded the most functional immature MoDC (iMoDC) with maximal viability, purity, CD11c expression and appropriate phagocytic capacity. Mass production of viable MoDC could be useful for immunotherapy.Biotechnic & Histochemistry 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/10520295.2015.1017536 · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Flagellin is the main structural protein of the ﬂagella of many pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium. It is a potent trigger of innate immune responses that enhance adaptive immune responses to a variety of protein antigens. Flagellin has intrinsic adjuvant activity mediated through toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 and is an attractive candidate for highly effective vaccine adjuvant conferring enhanced antibody and cellular immune responses to proteins or peptides. In the present study, we cloned the fliC gene from S. enterica typhimurium in eukaryote vector pVAX1 and evaluated its expression in eukaryotic cells. The main aim of the present study was to construct a DNA vaccine expressing fliC as an adjuvant. The fliC gene of S. typhimurium (ATCC 14028) was amplified by PCR with specific primers and cloned into the pPrime cloning vector and successfully subcloned into expression vector pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-fliC was finally expressed in eukaryotic cells. Cloning and subcloning of the fliC gene were confirmed by colony PCR, restriction enzymes digestion and DNA sequencing of the recombinant plasmids pPrime-fliC and pVAX-fliC. The expression of flagellin protein in eukaryotic cells was approved by immunoﬂuorescence assay (IFA), western blotting analysis and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The results of this study demonstrated that the fliC gene in recombinant plasmid pVAX-fliC was successfully expressed in eukaryotic cells and produced flagellin protein, which could be used as an effective adjuvant for DNA vaccine research.Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 11/2014; 7(11):e12351. DOI:10.5812/jjm.12351 · 0.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ceramide family of lipids plays important roles in both cell structure and signaling in a diverse array of cell types, including immune cells. However, very little is known regarding how ceramide affects the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in response to viral infection. In this study, we demonstrate that a synthetic ceramide analog (C8) stimulates DCs to increase the expansion of virus-specific T cells upon virus infection. Exogenously supplied C8 ceramide elevated the expression of DC maturation markers such as MHC class I and costimulatory molecules following infection with the clone 13 strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or influenza virus. Importantly, ceramide-conditioned, LCMV-infected DCs displayed an increased ability to promote expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells when compared with virus-infected DCs. Furthermore, a locally instilled ceramide analog significantly increased virus-reactive T cell responses in vivo to both LCMV and influenza virus infections. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into ceramide-mediated regulation of DC responses against virus infection and help us establish a foundation for novel immune-stimulatory therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.The Journal of Immunology 03/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402672 · 5.36 Impact Factor