Current therapy issues and unmet clinical needs in the treatment of schizophrenia: a review of the new generation antipsychotics.
ABSTRACT This review discusses the atypical antipsychotics, focusing on the possibility of symptom reduction with a minimum of side-effects. A selective review of clinically relevant reports, studies and meta-analyses is presented. The results from clinical trials suggest that atypical agents improve negative and affective symptoms, and cognitive functioning more than typical antipsychotics, but that the pattern of effects on these domains, as well as on suicidality, appears to differ. In clinical trials, the newer drugs generally have less extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) than typical antipsychotics. However, amisulpride, risperidone, olanzapine and ziprasidone still show evidence of a dose-related increase in EPS, whereas clozapine, quetiapine, sertindole and aripiprazole do not. Weight gain, increased blood lipids/cholesterol, and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes are emerging as significant treatment-associated concerns, particularly for clozapine and olanzapine. Sedation has been reported for all the newer compounds except sertindole. The considerable variation in benefit/risk profiles of the atypical compounds can help the clinician to select the most appropriate treatment for individual patients.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Numerous studies have been conducted with a view to developing strategies for improvement of medical compliance in patients with schizophrenia. All of the studies conducted so far have had an individual approach to compliance based on the assumption that noncompliance is determined individually due to inappropriate behavior in the patient. We conducted a pragmatic controlled trial with a system-oriented approach, to provide a new perspective on compliance and test the efficacy of a multifactorial intervention at the system level in a routine clinical setting, an approach that has not previously been used for the improvement of compliance. Methods. 30 patients were allocated to the system-oriented therapy and 40 patients were allocated to the reference intervention, which consisted of individually based compliance therapy. The follow-up period was six months. Primary endpoint was improvement in compliance, measured by improvement in a compliance scale specifically developed for the project. Results. When accounting for missing values with a multiple imputation approach, we found a tendency toward a difference in both the compliance scale and PANSS favoring the system-oriented therapy, although it did not reach statistical significance. A significant difference in incidence of adverse events and time to first readmission was found. Attrition rates were significantly higher in the reference group and nonsignificant among individuals with lower compliance, which may have diluted effect estimates. This was reflected by significant differences found in an analysis based on a last observation carried forward approach. Conclusion. This study suggests that compliance problems are better solved by a multifactorial intervention at the system level than at the individual level.Schizophrenia research and treatment. 01/2014; 2014:789403.
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ABSTRACT: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring side-effect of antipsychotic medications that is potentially irreversible in affected patients. Newer atypical antipsychotics are felt by many to have a lower risk of TD. As a result, many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications. We report five cases of patients taking atypical antipsychotics who developed TD, review the risk of TD, its potential etiologic mechanisms, and treatment options available. The goal of this paper is to alert the reader to continue to be diligent in obtaining informed consent and monitoring for the onset of TD in patients taking atypical antipsychotics.Drugs in Context 04/2014; 2014:212259.
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ABSTRACT: Severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are disabling, chronic conditions that are often accompanied by medical comorbidities. In this theoretical article, we review the allostatic load model representing the "wear and tear" that chronic stress exacts on the brain and body. We propose an innovative way of monitoring physical and psychiatric comorbidities by integrating the allostatic load model into clinical practice. By interpreting peripheral biomarkers differently, medical professionals can calculate a simple, count-based, allostatic load index known to predict diverse stress-related pathologies. In addition to screening for comorbidities, allostatic load indices can be used to monitor the effects of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. This framework can also be used to generate a dialogue between patient and practitioner to promote preventive and proactive approaches to health care.Harvard Review of Psychiatry 01/2013; 21(6):296-313. · 3.50 Impact Factor