Disruption of a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial gamma carbonic anhydrase reduces complex I and supercomplex I+III2 levels and alters mitochondrial physiology in Arabidopsis
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) of plants includes quite a number of plant-specific subunits, some of which exhibit sequence similarity to bacterial gamma-carbonic anhydrases. A homozygous Arabidopsis knockout mutant carrying a T-DNA insertion in a gene encoding one of these subunits (At1g47260) was generated to investigate its physiological role. Isolation of mitochondria and separation of mitochondrial protein complexes by Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation revealed drastically reduced complex I levels. Furthermore, the mitochondrial I + III2 supercomplex was very much reduced in mutant plants. Remaining complex I had normal molecular mass, suggesting substitution of the At1g47260 protein by one or several of the structurally related subunits of this respiratory protein complex. Immune-blotting experiments using polyclonal antibodies directed against the At1g47260 protein indicated its presence within complex I, the I + III2 supercomplex and smaller protein complexes, which possibly represent subcomplexes of complex I. Changes within the mitochondrial proteome of mutant cells were systematically monitored by fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis using 2D Blue-native/SDS and 2D isoelectric focussing/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Complex I subunits are largely absent within the mitochondrial proteome. Further mitochondrial proteins are reduced in mutant plants, like mitochondrial ferredoxin, others are increased, like formate dehydrogenase. Development of mutant plants was normal under standard growth conditions. However, a suspension cell culture generated from mutant plants exhibited clearly reduced growth rates and respiration. In summary, At1g47260 is important for complex I assembly in plant mitochondria and respiration. A role of At1g47260 in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is supported by micro-array analyses.
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ABSTRACT: Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the entry point for electrons into the respiratory electron transport chain, and it therefore plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism. Complex I from different organisms has a similar basic structure. However, an extra structural module, referred to as the γ-carbonic anhydrase (γCA) subcomplex, is found in the mitochondrial complex I of photoautotrophic eukaryotes, such as green alga and plants, but not in that of the heterotrophic eukaryotes, such as fungi and mammals. It has been proposed that the γCA subcomplex is required for light-dependent life style of photoautotrophic eukaryotes, but this hypothesis has not been successfully tested. We report here a genetic study of the genes, γCAL1 and γCAL2, that encode two subunits of the γCA subcomplex of mitochondrial complex I. We found that mutations of the γCAL1 and γCAL2 in Arabidopsis result in defective embryogenesis and non-germinating seeds, demonstrating the functional significance of the γCA subcomplex of mitochondrial complex I in plant development. Surprisingly, we also found that reduced expression of γCAL1 and γCAL2 genes altered photomorphogenic development. The γcal1 mutant plant expressing the RNAi construct of the γCAL2 gene showed a partial cop (constitutive photomorphogenic) phenotype in young seedlings, and a reduced photoperiodic sensitivity in adult plants. The involvement of γCA subcomplex of mitochondrial complex I in plant photomorphogenesis and the possible evolutionary significance of this plant-specific mitochondrial protein complex is discussed.Plant physiology 09/2012; DOI:10.1104/pp.112.204339 · 7.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) in angiosperms contain numerous group II-type introns that reside mainly within protein-coding genes that are required for organellar genome expression and respiration. While splicing of group II introns in non-plant systems is facilitated by proteins encoded within the introns themselves (maturases), the mitochondrial introns in plants have diverged and have lost the vast majority of their intron-encoded ORFs. Only a single maturase gene (matR) is retained in plant mtDNAs, but its role(s) in the splicing of mitochondrial introns is currently unknown. In addition to matR, plants also harbor four nuclear maturase genes (nMat 1 to 4) encoding mitochondrial proteins that are expected to act in the splicing of group II introns. Recently, we established the role of one of these proteins, nMAT2, in the splicing of several mitochondrial introns in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that nMAT1 is required for trans-splicing of nad1 intron 1 and also functions in cis-splicing of nad2 intron 1 and nad4 intron 2. Homozygous nMat1 plants show retarded growth and developmental phenotypes, modified respiration activities and altered stress responses that are tightly correlated with mitochondrial complex I defects.The Plant Journal 03/2012; 71(3):413-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.04998.x · 6.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have identified a mitochondrial protein (RUG3) that is required for accumulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. RUG3 is related to human REGULATOR OF CHROMOSOME CONDENSATION 1 (RCC1) and Arabidopsis UV-B RESISTANCE 8 (UVR8). Although the family of RCC1-like proteins in Arabidopsis has over 20 members, UVR8 is the sole plant representative of this family to have been functionally characterized. Mitochondria from Arabidopsis plants lacking a functional RUG3 gene showed greatly reduced complex I abundance and activity. In contrast, accumulation of complexes III, IV and V of the oxidative phosphorylation system and the capacity for succinate-dependent respiration were unaffected. A comprehensive study of processes contributing to complex I biogenesis in rug3 mutants revealed that RUG3 is required for efficient splicing of the nad2 mRNA, which encodes a complex I subunit. A comparison of the formation of complex I assembly intermediates between rug3 and wild type mitochondria indicated that NAD2 enters the assembly pathway at an early stage. Remarkably, rug3 mutants displayed increased capacities for import of nucleus-encoded mitochondrial proteins into the organelle and showed moderately increased mitochondrial transcript levels. This observation is consistent with global transcript changes indicating enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in the rug3 mutant in response to the complex I defect.The Plant Journal 05/2011; 67(6):1067-80. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04658.x · 6.82 Impact Factor