The occurrence of chronic sleep deprivation in the population is commonplace. Both duration and quality of sleep are important to assess when evaluating a patient who has sleep complaints. Excessive sleepiness and decreased psychomotor performance have been demonstrated after sleep deprivation. Sleep loss may impact mood, autonomic function, and the immune system. Sleep-deprived adults may have impaired job performance and are prone to motor vehicle accidents. Simple interventions to ensure adequate sleep can help avoid these hazards.
"Sleep deprivation or insomnia, an extremely common ailment in modern society, may affect numerous neurobehavioural and physiological functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, hormone secretion, glucose metabolism and immune function (Malik & Kaplan, 2005; Van Cauter et al. 2007; Zisapel, 2007). Numerous studies have implicated associations between sleep deprivation and inflammatory responses, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear (Irwin et al. 2006; Frey et al. 2007; Simpson & Dinges, 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammation that is also involved in the development of neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) would worsen neointimal formation by balloon injury. Sixteen rats were randomly allocated into the following four groups: group 1, balloon angioplasty alone; group 2, TSD prior to angioplasty; group 3, angioplasty before TSD; and group 4, TSD before and after angioplasty. Total sleep deprivation was induced by the disc-over-water method, and balloon angioplasty was performed in the carotid artery. Histopathological analysis and assay of cytokines were applied to evaluate the effects of TSD in this study. Total sleep deprivation significantly increased the ratio of postinjury neointima-to-media area in groups 2, 3 and 4 (all P < 0.01) compared with group 1. Additionally, in all groups with TSD administration the serum level of interleukin 10 was also markedly decreased on day 3 after angioplasty injury (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that perioperative TSD can significantly augment neointimal hyperplasia of the carotid artery in rats, which may be partly caused by a TSD-induced effect in suppressing the serum level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10.
"Sleep is one of the most important factors contributing to health; however, sleep loss, long-term sleep deprivation, and alterations in sleep duration are common in modern society. The factors responsible for this change include increased environmental light, increased shift and night work, and the advent of television, radio, and the Internet.1 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sleep is one of the most important health-related factors, the relationship between sleep duration and the incidence of cardiovascular events has not been fully described.
The present study comprised the 11,367 study subjects (4413 men and 6954 women) of the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study, a population-based prospective study. Baseline data were obtained by questionnaire and health examinations between April 1992 and July 1995 in 12 rural areas in Japan, and the main outcome measures were the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (stroke and myocardial infarction [MI]). Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the association between sleep duration and the incidence of cardiovascular events.
A total of 481carciovascular events (255 men and 226 women) were observed during an average follow-up period of 10.7 years. After adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, body mass index, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking habits, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases for individuals sleeping less than 6 hours and 9 hours or longer were 2.14 (1.11-4.13) and 1.33 (0.93-1.92) in men, and 1.46 (0.70-3.04) and 1.28 (0.88-1.87) in women, respectively, relative to those who reported sleeping 7 to 7.9 hours per day.
Our data indicate that men who sleep less than 6 hours a day have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those sleeping 7 to 7.9 hours.
Journal of Epidemiology 12/2009; 20(2):106-10. DOI:10.2188/jea.JE20090053 · 3.02 Impact Factor
"Although best known as a movement disorder, HD involves a panoply of other symptoms that includes cognitive decline, psychiatric disorder (for references, see Bates et al., 2002), and sleep and circadian abnormalities (Arnulf et al., 2008; Morton et al., 2005; Pallier et al., 2007; Petersén et al., 2005). Regular sleep/ wake cycles are central to normal neurological function (Malik and Kaplan, 2005; Maquet, 1995; Roth and Ancoli-Israel, 1999; Zammit et al., 1999; Zisapel, 2007), and their disruption is deleterious to cognitive function (Cirelli, 2005; Durmer and Dinges, 2005; Harrison and Horne, 2000; Zammit et al., 1999). In HD patients, disrupted sleep may not only contribute to disease progression, it may also have a knock-on effect on the quality of sleep of the partner or carer (Gruffydd and Randle, 2006; Morton et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normally, mice sleep during the day and are active at night. In Huntington's disease mice (R6/2 line) this circadian pattern disintegrates progressively over the course of their illness. Cognitive decline and apathy in R6/2 mice can be improved with sleeping drugs, suggesting that sleep disruption contributes to their neurological decline. We wondered if wakefulness was equally important. Here, we used two drugs to manage sleep/wake cycles in R6/2 mice, Alprazolam (to put them to sleep) and Modafinil (to wake them up). We found that both drugs improved cognitive function and apathy, but had a stronger effect when used in combination. Remarkably, beneficial effects on cognitive performance were also seen in vehicle-treated cage-mates of Alprazolam/Modafinil-treated mice, suggesting that behavioral intervention to regularize sleep/wake activity might be therapeutically useful. We suggest that focused management of sleep and wakefulness will slow the progression of cognitive decline and apathy in neurological conditions where sleep is disordered.
Brain research 06/2009; 1279:90-8. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.03.072 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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