Escape strategies and reasons for failure in the interaction between tumour cells and the immune system: how can we tilt the balance towards immune-mediated cancer control?
ABSTRACT The last decade has witnessed an exponential increase in the attempts to demonstrate that adaptive immunity can effectively detect cancer cells and impair their growth in vivo in cancer patients. However, clinical trials of immunotherapy with a broad array of immunisation strategies have depicted a rather disappointing scenario, suggesting that successful control of tumour growth by immunotherapeutic treatments may not be an easy task to achieve. The attention of tumour immunologists has thus been switched to the potential reasons of failure, and extensive efforts are being made in defining the cellular and molecular pathways interfering with the capacity of the immune system to develop powerful immunological reactions against tumour cells. Although many of these pathways have been well characterised in murine models, little and controversial information about their role in determining neoplastic progression in cancer patients is available. This discrepancy at the moment represents one of the major limitations in understanding the obstacles to the in vivo development of protective T cell-mediated immune responses against tumours, and how pharmacological or biological interventions aimed at bypassing tumour escape mechanisms would indeed result in a clinical benefit. The study of the reasons for the failure of the immune system to control tumour growth, which have to be ascribed to highly interconnected phenomena occurring at both tumour and immune levels, could in the near future provide adequate tools to fight cancer by finely tuning the host environment through biological therapies.
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ABSTRACT: Aim: Brain tumors almost universally have fatal outcomes; new therapeutics are desperately needed and will only come from improved understandins of glioma biology. Methods: Exosomes are endosomally derived 30~100 nm membranous vesicles released from many cell types. Examples from GL26 cells were here purified using density gradient ultracentrifugation and monitored for effects on GL26 tumor growth in C57BL/6j mice (H-2b). Lactate dehydrogenase release assays were used to detect the cytotoxic activity of CD8+T and NK cells. Percentages of immune cells producing intracellular cytokines were analyzed by FACS. Results: In this study, exosomes from murine-derived GL26 cells significantly promoted in vivo tumor growth in GL26-bearing B6 mice. Then we further analyzed the effects of the GL26 cells-derived exosomes on immune cells including CD8+T, CD4+T and NK cells. Inhibition of CD8+T cell cytotoxic activity was demonstrated by CD8+T cell depletion assays in vivo and LDH release assays in vitro. The treatment of mice with exosomes also led to a reduction in the percentages of CD8+T cells in splenocytes as determined by FACS analysis. Key features of CD8+T cell activity were inhibited, including release of IFN-gamma and granzyme B. There were no effects of exosomes on CD4+T cells and NK cells. Conclusion: Based on our data, for the first time we demonstrated that exosomes from murine derived GL26 cells promote the tumor growth by inhibition of CD8+T cells in vivo and thus may be a potential therapeutic target.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2013; 14(1):309-314. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.309 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma is characterized by a rapid progression, metastasis to distant organs, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. Well-defined immunogenic capacities of melanoma cells should allow a successful application of different immunotherapeutic strategies. However, the overall results of immunotherapeutic clinical studies are not satisfactory. These paradoxical observations are supposed to be due to the profound immunosuppression mediated by different mechanisms dealing with alterations in tumor and surrounding stroma cells. Melanoma microenvironment has been characterized by a remarkable accumulation of highly immunosuppressive regulatory leucocytes, in particular, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Their migration, retention and high activity in the tumor lesions have been demonstrated to be induced by chronic inflammatory conditions developing in the tumor microenvironment and characterized by the long-term secretion of various inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins etc.) leading to further cancer progression. Here, we discuss the role of chronic inflammation in the recruitment and activation of MDSCs in melanoma lesions as well as therapeutic approaches of MDSC targeting to overcome tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment induced by chronic inflammation and enhance the efficiency of melanoma immunotherapies.Seminars in Cancer Biology 02/2012; 22(4):319-26. DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2012.02.003 · 9.33 Impact Factor
- Journal of Hepatology 10/2010; 53(4):596-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.06.001 · 10.40 Impact Factor