S100P is selectively upregulated in tumor cell lines challenged with DNA cross-linking agents
ABSTRACT Bifunctional alkylating agents that cross-link DNA are implicated in the pathogenesis of therapy related myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and MDS related acute myeloid leukemia (MDR-AML). We exposed HL60 cells to the highest level of bifunctional alkylating nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) that was consistent with recovery following suppressed growth. Microarray analyses showed minor changes in transcripts in HN2 treated cells. A moderate up-regulation of S100P mRNA was consistently observed after 1 day of exposure to bifunctional alkylating agents and expression was not induced with monofunctional agents. Elevated S100P protein/antigen was not detected until days later in a subset of non-mitotic G2 cells. Elevated S100P protein persisted over the course of a delayed recovery phase. The results confirm recent reports indicating that S100P is a survival factor. In addition, our results indicate that S100P has a specific role in G2 cell function associated with a prolonged phase of recovery after exposure to bifunctional alkylating agents.
- Histopathology 08/2007; 51(1):125-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2007.02714.x · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the enzyme 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase are a new class of anti-prostate cancer agents currently undergoing preclinical and clinical development. We have previously reported the superior anticancer activity of our novel 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase inhibitor, VN/124-1, against androgen-dependent cancer models. Here, we examined the effect of VN/124-1 on the growth of the androgen-independent cell lines PC-3 and DU-145 and found that the compound inhibits their growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (GI50, 7.82 micromol/L and 7.55 micromol/L, respectively). We explored the mechanism of action of VN/124-1 in PC-3 cells through microarray analysis and found that VN/124-1 up-regulated genes involved in stress response and protein metabolism, as well as down-regulated genes involved in cell cycle progression. Follow-up real-time PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that VN/124-1 induces the endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in down-regulation of cyclin D1 protein expression and cyclin E2 mRNA. Cell cycle analysis confirmed G1-G0 phase arrest. Measurements of intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) showed that 20 micromol/L VN/124-1 caused a release of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum stores resulting in a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i. Finally, cotreatment of PC-3 cells with 5, 10, and 20 micromol/L VN/124-1 with 10 nmol/L thapsigargin revealed a synergistic relationship between the compounds in inhibiting PC-3 cell growth. Taken together, these findings show VN/124-1 is endowed with multiple anticancer properties that may contribute to its utility as a prostate cancer therapeutic.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2008; 7(9):2828-36. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0336 · 6.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have revealed that prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduces the risk of cancer. Various mechanisms, including induction of apoptosis and inhibition of the growth and invasion of cancer cells, have been implicated in this anti-tumorigenic activity. In this study we focused on S100P, which is known to be overexpressed in clinically isolated tumors and which functions through both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms. We showed the up-regulation of S100P expression in human gastric carcinoma cells treated with various NSAIDs, including celecoxib. The celecoxib-mediated up-regulation of S100P was suppressed by the transfection of cells with small interfering RNA for activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a transcription factor involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Furthermore, deletion of ATF4 binding consensus sequence located in the promoter of the S100P gene resulted in inhibition of celecoxibmediated transcriptional activation of the gene. These results suggest that celecoxib up-regulates the expression of S100P through an ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Celecoxib inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis, and these actions could be either suppressed or stimulated by transfection of cells with S100P overexpression plasmid or small interfering RNA, respectively. Celecoxib also inhibited the invasive activity of the cells. Cromolyn, which inhibits the binding of S100P to its receptor, enhanced the celecoxib-mediated inhibition of cell invasion and growth but did not affect apoptosis. These results suggest that S100P affects apoptosis, cell growth, and invasion through either an intracellular or an extracellular mechanism and that the up-regulation of S100P expression by NSAIDs reduces their anti-tumorigenic activity.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2009; 284(7):4158-67. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M806051200 · 4.57 Impact Factor