Peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration impairs two-way active avoidance conditioning in C57BL/6J mice.
ABSTRACT Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-1 (IL-1) may lead to alterations of CNS function and behavioral changes designated "sickness behavior." Further, some experiments show evidence of LPS- and cytokine-mediated alterations in learning and memory. The current series of experiments examined the effects of a single or repeated intraperitoneal LPS injections, at a number of doses and time points before or after test sessions, on behavior in a two-way active avoidance conditioning paradigm. Subjects were able to avoid the mild shock stimulus, escape it, or fail to respond to it. Subjects treated with LPS at many, but not all, of the time points sampled showed impaired learning, by exhibiting significantly fewer avoidance responses than controls. Furthermore, an LPS-induced increase in non-cued inter-trial interval crossings was observed during the later days of testing, suggesting that a greater percentage of their avoidance responses was not conditioned and their behavior was less efficient. Taken together, the results suggest that LPS-treated animals showed a diminished association between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). These results support the theory that peripheral immune stimuli may induce deleterious effects on learning, and extend the work to a negatively reinforced operant procedure.
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ABSTRACT: In two separate experiments, voluntary resistance wheel running with 30% of body weight (RWR), rather than wheel running (WR), led to greater enhancements, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions, in conjunction with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling (Lee et al., J Appl Physiol, 2012; Neurosci Lett., 2013). Here we aimed to unravel novel molecular factors and gain insight into underlying molecular mechanisms for RWR-enhanced hippocampal functions; a high-throughput whole-genome DNA microarray approach was applied to rats performing voluntary running for 4 weeks. RWR rats showed a significant decrease in average running distances although average work levels increased immensely, by about 11-fold compared to WR, resulting in muscular adaptation for the fast-twitch plantaris muscle. Global transcriptome profiling analysis identified 128 (sedentary × WR) and 169 (sedentary × RWR) up-regulated (>1.5-fold change), and 97 (sedentary × WR) and 468 (sedentary × RWR) down-regulated (<0.75-fold change) genes. Functional categorization using both pathway- or specific-disease-state-focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed expression pattern changes in the major categories of disease and disorders, molecular functions, and physiological system development and function. Genes specifically regulated with RWR include the newly identified factors of NFATc1, AVPR1A, and FGFR4, as well as previously known factors, BDNF and CREB mRNA. Interestingly, RWR down-regulated multiple inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, IL2RA, and TNF) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL2, and CCR4) with the SYCP3, PRL genes, which are potentially involved in regulating hippocampal neuroplastic changes. These results provide understanding of the voluntary-RWR-related hippocampal transcriptome, which will open a window to the underlying mechanisms of the positive effects of exercise, with therapeutic value for enhancing hippocampal functions.Physiological Reports. 11/2014; 2(11).
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ABSTRACT: Even though laboratory evolution experiments have demonstrated genetic variation for learning ability, we know little about the underlying genetic architecture and genetic relationships with other ecologically relevant traits. With a full diallel cross among twelve inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster originating from a natural population (0.75 < F < 0.93), we investigated the genetic architecture of olfactory learning ability and compared it to that for another behavioral trait (unconditional preference for odors), as well as three traits quantifying the ability to deal with environmental challenges: egg-to-adult survival and developmental rate on a low-quality food, and resistance to a bacterial pathogen. Substantial additive genetic variation was detected for each trait, highlighting their potential to evolve. Genetic effects contributed more than nongenetic parental effects to variation in traits measured at the adult stage: learning, odorant perception, and resistance to infection. In contrast, the two traits quantifying larval tolerance to low-quality food were more strongly affected by parental effects. We found no evidence for genetic correlations between traits, suggesting that these traits could evolve at least to some degree independently of one another. Finally, inbreeding adversely affected all traits.Ecology and Evolution 01/2015; · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Virulent infections are expected to impair learning ability, either as a direct consequence of stressed physiological state or as an adaptive response that minimizes diversion of energy from immune defense. This prediction has been well supported for mammals and bees. Here, we report an opposite result in Drosophila melanogaster. Using an odor-mechanical shock conditioning paradigm, we found that intestinal infection with bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas entomophila or Erwinia c. carotovora improved flies' learning performance after a 1 h retention interval. Infection with P. entomophila (but not E. c. carotovora) also improved learning performance after 5 min retention. No effect on learning performance was detected for intestinal infections with an avirulent GacA mutant of P. entomophila or for virulent systemic (hemocoel) infection with E. c. carotovora. Assays of unconditioned responses to odorants and shock do not support a major role for changes in general responsiveness to stimuli in explaining the changes in learning performance, although differences in their specific salience for learning cannot be excluded. Our results demonstrate that the effects of pathogens on learning performance in insects is less predictable than suggested by previous studies, and support the notion that immune stress can sometimes boost cognitive abilities.Brain Behavior and Immunity 05/2014; · 6.13 Impact Factor