Peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration impairs two-way active avoidance conditioning in C57BL/6J mice.
ABSTRACT Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-1 (IL-1) may lead to alterations of CNS function and behavioral changes designated "sickness behavior." Further, some experiments show evidence of LPS- and cytokine-mediated alterations in learning and memory. The current series of experiments examined the effects of a single or repeated intraperitoneal LPS injections, at a number of doses and time points before or after test sessions, on behavior in a two-way active avoidance conditioning paradigm. Subjects were able to avoid the mild shock stimulus, escape it, or fail to respond to it. Subjects treated with LPS at many, but not all, of the time points sampled showed impaired learning, by exhibiting significantly fewer avoidance responses than controls. Furthermore, an LPS-induced increase in non-cued inter-trial interval crossings was observed during the later days of testing, suggesting that a greater percentage of their avoidance responses was not conditioned and their behavior was less efficient. Taken together, the results suggest that LPS-treated animals showed a diminished association between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). These results support the theory that peripheral immune stimuli may induce deleterious effects on learning, and extend the work to a negatively reinforced operant procedure.
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between learning/memory performance and long-term potentiation (LTP) induction is ambiguous. Although a large body of data supports a strong correspondence between learning/memory performance and LTP, many studies have also provided evidence to the contrary. In this study, we found that 2-month-old senescence-accelerated mice/prone 8 (SAMP8 mice) displayed both impaired performance in a Morris water maze and enhanced LTP compared to senescence-accelerated mice/resistance 1 (SAMR1). BALB/c mice challenged with Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) performed better in the shuttle-box test but displayed impaired LTP compared to intact animals. It is interesting that BALB/c mice challenged with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) performed better than intact animals, with no LTP impairment. Cytokine analysis showed no significant differences between the IL-6, IL-10 or TNF-α content in the intact hippocampal tissues of either the SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice or the immune challenged BALB/c and intact animals. Further analysis demonstrated that the increase in cytokine content was higher in the hippocampal tissues used for LTP recording in the SAMR1 and CFA-challenged animals compared to the SAMP8 and intact BALB/c mice. A correlation analysis demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) displayed a negative correlation with LTP, while an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) displayed a positive correlation with LTP. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LTP manipulation in experiments (e.g., via tissue injury caused by electrode insertion) may be one of the factors contributing to the observed lack of correspondence between memory/learning ability and LTP.Neuroscience 11/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on theses markers. Rat pups were injected with GA (5umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life), and were supplemented with NAC (150mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period). LPS (2mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5) or vehicle (saline 0.9%) was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could represent a possible adjuvant therapy in treatment of children with GA-I.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78332. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity increases susceptibility for numerous diseases and neurological disorders including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and dementia. One factor that may contribute to the increased risk for these conditions is the development of chronic inflammation. The current study evaluated whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) affects cognitive performance by increasing neuroinflammation and prolonging the behavioral and inflammatory response to an immune challenge. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for 2 or 5 months. After consuming their respective diets for two months, sickness associated behaviors were assessed 4 and 24hours after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline injection. In a separate experiment, DIO and control mice were tested for spatial learning in the water maze and challenged with LPS one month later. Peripheral cytokine production was assessed in adipose and spleen samples and the neuroinflammatory response was assessed in hippocampal, cortical, and brain samples. DIO impaired acquisition of a spatial learning task relative to control mice. However, these deficits are unlikely to be related to inflammation as DIO showed no changes in basal cytokine levels within the periphery or brain. Further, in response to LPS DIO mice showed comparable or attenuated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 relative to control mice. DIO also reduced hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the pre-synaptic marker synaptophysin. Presently, the data indicate that DIO suppresses aspects of the immune response and that cognitive deficits associated with DIO may be related to reduced neurotrophic support rather than inflammation.Behavioural brain research 03/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor