Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma
ABSTRACT It has been hypothesized that decreasing antioxidant (fruit and vegetables), increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; (margarine, vegetable oil), and decreased n-3 PUFA (oily fish) intakes have contributed to the recent increases in asthma and atopic disease. Epidemiologic studies in adults and children have reported beneficial associations between dietary antioxidants and lipids and parameters of asthma and atopic disease. The associations with n-6 and n-3 PUFA appear to be very complex and might differ between asthma and atopic dermatitis. Dietary antioxidants are probably exerting antioxidant and nonantioxidant immunomodulatory effects. Dietary lipids exert numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. It has also been suggested that atopic dermatitis is associated with an enzyme defect in lipid metabolism. In spite of this, the results of interventional supplementation studies in established disease have been disappointing, and there is now increasing interest in the possibility that dietary antioxidant and lipid intakes might be important in determining expression of disease during pregnancy and early childhood and that dietary interventions should be targeted at these groups. It also seems likely that there is individual variation in the responses of individuals to lipid, and probably antioxidant, supplementation. Further research to determine whether dietary intervention can reduce the risk of asthma and atopic disease is justified.
- SourceAvailable from: Joan Cook-Mills[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vitamin E regulation of disease has been extensively studied in humans, animal models and cell systems. Most of these studies focus on the α-tocopherol isoform of vitamin E. These reports indicate contradictory outcomes for anti-inflammatory functions of the α-tocopherol isoform of vitamin E, especially with regards to clinical studies of asthma and atherosclerosis. These seemingly disparate clinical results are consistent with recently reported unrecognized properties of isoforms of vitamin E. Recently, it has been reported that physiological levels of purified natural forms of vitamin E have opposing regulatory functions during inflammation. These opposing regulatory functions by physiological levels of vitamin E isoforms impact interpretations of previous studies on vitamin E. Moreover, additional recent studies also indicate that the effects of vitamin E isoforms on inflammation are only partially reversible using physiological levels of a vitamin E isoform with opposing immunoregulatory function. Thus, this further influences interpretations of previous studies with vitamin E in which there was inflammation and substantial vitamin E isoforms present before the initiation of the study. In summary, this review will discuss regulation of inflammation by vitamin E, including alternative interpretations of previous studies in the literature with regards to vitamin E isoforms.11/2010; 10(4):348-66. DOI:10.2174/1871530311006040348
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and clinical evidence has suggested that increased dietary intake of fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with a reduced risk of asthma. However, interventional studies on these effects have been equivocal and controversial. Free radical oxidation products of lipids and cyclooxygenases-derived prostaglandins are believed to play an important role in asthma, and fish oil supplementation may modulate the levels of these critical lipid mediators. We employed a murine model of allergic inflammation produced by sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) to study the effects of fish oil supplementation on airway inflammation. Our studies demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids were dose dependently incorporated into mouse lung tissue after dietary supplementation. We examined the oxidative stress status by measuring the levels of isoprostanes (IsoPs), the gold standard for oxidative stress in vivo. OVA challenge caused significant increase of F(2)-IsoPs in mouse lung, suggesting an elevated level of oxidative stress. Compared to the control group, fish oil supplementation led to a significant reduction of F(2)-IsoP (from arachidonic acid) with a concomitant increase of F(3)-IsoPs (from EPA) and F(4)-IsoPs (from DHA). Surprisingly, however, fish oil supplementation enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation suppressed the production of pulmonary protective PGE(2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) while the level of urinary metabolites of the PGE(2) was increased. Our data suggest that augmented lung inflammation after fish oil supplementation may be due to the reduction of PGE(2) production in the lung and these dichotomous results bring into question the role of fish oil supplementation in the treatment of asthma.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2009; 47(5):622-8. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.05.033 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma has risen over the last few decades, and some studies correlate this with the greater consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Dietary PUFAs are known to increase the susceptibility of biological structures to lipid peroxidation, a process by which platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipids can be generated. These lipids functionally mimic the bioactivity of PAF, a potent proinflammatory mediator that exerts several deleterious effects on asthma. Thus, this work aimed to investigate if dietary supplementation with soybean lecithin (SL), a source of PUFAs, increases lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic Wistar rats. Animals were separated into groups: control, supplemented, asthmatic, asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight), asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight) and DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg body weight). Asthmatic inflammation increased pulmonary lipid peroxidation, PAF bioactivity, alveolar-capillary barrier permeability and production of nitric oxide. In asthmatics, dietary supplementation with SL promoted an increase in pulmonary lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity, and an increase in the permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Moreover, the treatment of asthmatic rats with DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate inhibited the lipid peroxidation and decreased the PAF bioactivity. Therefore, the increase in pulmonary PAF bioactivity in asthmatic individuals elicited by the dietary supplementation with SL probably involves the generation of PAF-like lipids. This finding suggests that PAF-like lipids may account for the deleterious effects of dietary PUFAs on asthma.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 05/2009; 21(6):532-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.03.001 · 4.59 Impact Factor