Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma

Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN, Scotland, UK.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 07/2005; 115(6):1109-17; quiz 1118. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.12.1139
Source: PubMed


It has been hypothesized that decreasing antioxidant (fruit and vegetables), increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; (margarine, vegetable oil), and decreased n-3 PUFA (oily fish) intakes have contributed to the recent increases in asthma and atopic disease. Epidemiologic studies in adults and children have reported beneficial associations between dietary antioxidants and lipids and parameters of asthma and atopic disease. The associations with n-6 and n-3 PUFA appear to be very complex and might differ between asthma and atopic dermatitis. Dietary antioxidants are probably exerting antioxidant and nonantioxidant immunomodulatory effects. Dietary lipids exert numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. It has also been suggested that atopic dermatitis is associated with an enzyme defect in lipid metabolism. In spite of this, the results of interventional supplementation studies in established disease have been disappointing, and there is now increasing interest in the possibility that dietary antioxidant and lipid intakes might be important in determining expression of disease during pregnancy and early childhood and that dietary interventions should be targeted at these groups. It also seems likely that there is individual variation in the responses of individuals to lipid, and probably antioxidant, supplementation. Further research to determine whether dietary intervention can reduce the risk of asthma and atopic disease is justified.

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    • "Vitamin A plays important roles during embryonic development, cell growth and differentiation, immune responses, et al. In respiratory system, Vitamin A is involved in lung morphogenesis [14], airway epithelium phenotype maintenance [15], airway autonomic nervous regulation [16] and immune responses [17]. Epidemiologic studies showed that serum Vitamin A was lower in children with asthma compared with controls, and Vitamin A deficiency might be associated with the development of asthma and allergic disorders [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active metabolite of Vitamin A, it shows protective effects on asthma, including maintains airway epithelial integrity, inhibits asthma effector cells differentiation, modulates immune response, et al. However, the promoting effect of ATRA on Th2 response has restricted the clinical application of ATRA in asthma treatment. ORMDL3 is a candidate gene of childhood onset asthma, and high-transcript of ORMDL3 is associated with the development of asthma. Here we show that ATRA increases ORMDL3 production in vitro via inducing PKA-dependent CREB phosphorylation which in turn binds to the CRE element in promoter region of ORMDL3 and initiates ORMDL3 transcription. This finding is in consistent with the previous reports that ATRA could regulate target genes without the presence of retinoic acid response element (RARE) in promoter region but through other signals such as PKA/CREB. Nevertheless, in the present study, the traditional signal pathway of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signal transduction pathway, indirectly modulated ORMDL3 expression. RAR-α agonist (Am-80) increased ORMDL3 production even though there was no RARE in ORMDL3 promoter, introns or 3'-downstream region. Besides, the signal of RAR might differ from that of ATRA since Am-80 failed to induce CREB activation. In conclusion, our data indicate that ATRA facilitates ORMDL3 production probable through PKA/CREB, and this may be a starting point for more detailed mechanism researches on ATRA and asthma.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77304. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077304 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "There is increasing evidence suggesting that prenatal and early-life exposures influence the development of asthma and allergic diseases, with interest converging on the possible role of the diet during pregnancy and early life. It has been hypothesised that the maternal diet during pregnancy modulates the development of asthma and allergic disease by influencing foetal airway and/or immune development [10]. Birth cohort studies have reported associations between aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood asthma and allergic outcomes [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Over recent decades there has been a substantial increase in asthma and allergic disease especially in children. Given the high prevalence, and the associated high disease burden and costs, there is a need to identify effective strategies for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy. A recent systematic review of the literature found strong supportive epidemiological evidence for a protective role of the Mediterranean diet, which now needs to be confirmed through formal experimental studies. This pilot trial in pregnant women aims to establish recruitment, retention and acceptability of a dietary intervention, and to assess the likely impact of the intervention on adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy. Methods/Design This study was a pilot, two-arm, randomised controlled trial in a sample population of pregnant women at high risk of having a child who will develop asthma or allergic disease. Discussion The work ultimately aims to contribute to improving health outcomes through seeking to reduce the incidence of asthma and allergic problems. This pilot trial will prove invaluable in informing the subsequent planned large-scale, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01634516
    Trials 06/2013; 14(1):173. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-173 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "Vitamin C has intracellular and extracellular aqueous-phase antioxidant capacity primarily by scavenging oxygen free radicals and suppressing macrophage secretion of superoxide anions.24 Most studies of dietary vitamin C and asthma have reported that consumption of the former is associated with improved ventilator function. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen over the last few decades. Many factors, including environmental factors such as those related to diet, have been considered. Among dietary factors, intake of antioxidant-related nutrients has been associated with the risk of allergic disease. We investigated the association of antioxidant nutritional status with allergic rhinitis (AR) in Korean schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. Subjects were 4,554 children in Seoul, Korea. The risk of allergic disease was measured using the Korean version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, and dietary intake was measured by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Intake of vitamins A (including retinol and β-carotene), C, and E was used in the analysis. Vitamin C intake was negatively associated with an increased risk of current symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, 0.886; 95% confidence interval, 0.806-0.973). There was no association between AR and intake of vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, or vitamin E. Total serum IgE level and sensitization to allergen did not differ according to nutrient intake. The group of children with increased vitamin C consumption had fewer AR symptoms, despite the lack of a difference in total serum IgE level or allergen sensitization. These findings suggest that nutrient intake, especially that of vitamin C, influences AR symptoms.
    Allergy, asthma & immunology research 03/2013; 5(2):81-7. DOI:10.4168/aair.2013.5.2.81 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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