Prevalence and correlates of paediatric asthma and wheezing in a largely rural USA population

Department of Family and Community Medicine and Rural and Community Health Center, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas 79430, USA.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health (Impact Factor: 1.15). 05/2004; 40(4):189-94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2004.00335.x
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of asthma among children has been increasing in the United States and it is estimated that there are approximately 5 million children with asthma. This cross-sectional survey sought to estimate the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms and potential risk factors among children aged 16 and younger, in a largely rural population in the USA.
This study was a telephone survey of 1500 households in the South Plains/Panhandle region of Texas. Parents of children were interviewed with a response rate of 64%. Having been diagnosed with asthma by a physician and a report of wheezing in the last 12 months were used as dependent variables in multivariate logistic regressions with several sociodemographic and environmental factors as potential confounders.
The age-adjusted prevalence of asthma and wheezing among children were approximately 15 and 18%, respectively. The prevalence of asthma was highest (20%) among children aged 11-16 (P < 0.001). Living in urban areas was associated significantly with asthma and wheezing. Non-Hispanic blacks reported significantly increased odds of asthma in their children (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.04, 95%CI 1.02-4.08), whereas Mexican-Americans reported significantly reduced odds of asthma (adjusted OR = 0.48, 95%CI 0.29-0.78) and wheezing (adjusted OR = 0.58, 95%CI 0.37-0.89) in their children. The odds of asthma (adjusted OR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.09-2.92) and wheezing (adjusted OR = 2.45, 95%CI 1.52-3.95) was highest among children in the highest body mass index quartile. No significant association with pet ownership and exposure to second-hand smoke with asthma and wheezing was observed in this study.
Urban residence, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American race/ethnicity, and being overweight were significantly associated with the increased risk of asthma and/or wheezing.

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    • "One-third of our sample of rural African American premature infants experienced postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke by 24 months. Passive exposure to secondhand smoke in the first 2 years of life has been reported to be as low as 17% [33] and as high as 75% in some European countries, such as Poland [34], and secondhand smoke exposure in a rural US children 16 years of age and younger was 83% [35]. Because very few studies have examined secondhand smoke exposure in rural premature children, whether our findings about secondhand smoke exposure in African American premature infants are greater than expected is difficult to determine. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To explore the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on growth, health-related illness, and child development in rural African American premature infants through 24 months corrected age. Method. 171 premature infants (72 boys, 99 girls) of African American mothers with a mean birthweight of 1114 grams. Mothers reported on household smoking and infant health at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age. Infant growth was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and developmental assessments were conducted at 12 and 24 months. Results. Thirty percent of infants were exposed to secondhand smoke within their first 2 years of life. Secondhand smoke exposure was associated with poorer growth of head circumference and the development of otitis media at 2 months corrected age. Height, weight, wheezing, and child development were not related to secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusion. Exposure to secondhand smoke may negatively impact health of rural African American premature infants. Interventions targeted at reducing exposure could potentially improve infant outcomes.
    05/2011; 2011(2090-2042):165687. DOI:10.1155/2011/165687

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