Lack of dendritic cell mobilization into the peripheral blood of cancer patients following standard- or high-dose chemotherapy plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DC), the most specialized antigen-presenting cells, can be detected in the peripheral blood (PB) and divided into two subsets of populations, DC1 and DC2, endowed with different functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on DC release and on their subsets of three regimens utilized to mobilize CD34+ cells into the PB in cancer patients and in normal CD34+ cell donors.
The mobilizing sequences were: standard-dose epirubicin+taxol+granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 15 patients with advanced breast cancer), high-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX)+G-CSF (10 patients with breast cancer patients and 7 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL), and G-CSF alone (5 normal donors of CD34+ cells for allogeneic transplantation). Comparative data were obtained from the steady-state PB of 20 healthy volunteers. For flow cytometric analysis, DC were gated as negative for specific lineage markers (CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD16, CD56, CD19, CD20, CD34) and positive for HLA-DR. The DC1 and DC2 subsets were defined as CD11c and CDw123 positive, respectively.
The percentages of DC at baseline and the time of CD34+ cell peak were: 0.48 and 0.51 for standard-dose chemotherapy (CT); 0.55 and 0.63 for breast cancer after high-dose CTX+G-CSF; 0.53 and 0.71 for NHL after high-dose CTX+G-CSF; and 0.51 and 0.54 for normal donors of CD34+ cells after G-CSF alone (all p=n.s.). Mean DC1/DC2 ratios in each study group at the time of CD34+ cell peak were 0.10, 0.12, and 0.18, respectively. Finally, in the group of healthy volunteers, the percentage of circulating DC was 0.95 and the mean DC1/DC2 ratio was 1.28.
To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates that both standard-dose or high-dose CT, when utilized together with G-CSF, do not induce DC mobilization into the PB, whereas a reversed DC1/DC2 ratio is observed. Furthermore, a lack of significant DC mobilization after G-CSF alone was also seen, in contrast to what was previously observed by others. These data should be taken in account when evaluating clinical correlations between DC number and CPC engraftment in both the transplantation setting, when monitoring the effects on the immune system of combinations of new drugs and/or cytokines, and when high numbers of DC are required for both experimental and clinical applications.
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ABSTRACT: Conventional anticancer chemotherapy has been historically thought to act through direct killing of tumor cells. This concept stems from the fact that cytotoxic drugs interfere with DNA synthesis and replication. Accumulating evidence, however, indicates that the antitumor activities of chemotherapy also rely on several off-target effects, especially directed to the host immune system, that cooperate for successful tumor eradication. Chemotherapeutic agents stimulate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system through several modalities: (i) by promoting specific rearrangements on dying tumor cells, which render them visible to the immune system; (ii) by influencing the homeostasis of the hematopoietic compartment through transient lymphodepletion followed by rebound replenishment of immune cell pools; (iii) by subverting tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms and (iv) by exerting direct or indirect stimulatory effects on immune effectors. Among the indirect ways of immune cell stimulation, some cytotoxic drugs have been shown to induce an immunogenic type of cell death in tumor cells, resulting in the emission of specific signals that trigger phagocytosis of cell debris and promote the maturation of dendritic cells, ultimately resulting in the induction of potent antitumor responses. Here, we provide an extensive overview of the multiple immune-based mechanisms exploited by the most commonly employed cytotoxic drugs, with the final aim of identifying prerequisites for optimal combination with immunotherapy strategies for the development of more effective treatments against cancer.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 21 June 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.67.Cell death and differentiation 06/2013; · 8.24 Impact Factor
Dataset: Thèse PhD Moufida Ben Nasr
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ABSTRACT: Metronomic cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment activates robust innate anti-tumor immunity and induces major regression of large, implanted brain tumor xenografts when administered on an intermittent, every 6-day schedule, but not on a daily low-dose or a maximum-tolerated dose CPA schedule. Here, we used an implanted GL261 glioma model to compare five intermittent metronomic CPA schedules to elucidate the kinetics and schedule dependence of innate immune cell recruitment and tumor regression. Tumor-recruited natural killer cells induced by two every 6-day treatment cycles were significantly ablated one day after a third CPA treatment, but largely recovered several days later. Natural killer and other tumor-infiltrating innate immune cells peaked 12 days after the last CPA treatment on the every 6-day schedule, suggesting that drug-free intervals longer than 6 days may show increased efficacy. Metronomic CPA treatments spaced 9 or 12 days apart, or on an alternating 6 and 9 day schedule, induced extensive tumor regression, similar to the 6-day schedule, however, the tumor-infiltrating natural killer cell responses were not sustained, leading to rapid resumption of tumor regrowth after day 24, despite ongoing metronomic CPA treatment. Increasing the CPA dose prolonged the period of tumor regression on the every 9-day schedule, but natural killer cell activation was markedly decreased. Thus, while several intermittent metronomic CPA treatment schedules can activate innate immune cell recruitment leading to major tumor regression, sustained immune and anti-tumor responses are only achieved on the 6-day schedule. However, even with this schedule, some tumors eventually relapse, indicating a need for further improvements in immunogenic metronomic therapies.Cancer letters. 07/2014;