Lack of dendritic cell mobilization into the peripheral blood of cancer patients following standard- or high-dose chemotherapy plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DC), the most specialized antigen-presenting cells, can be detected in the peripheral blood (PB) and divided into two subsets of populations, DC1 and DC2, endowed with different functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on DC release and on their subsets of three regimens utilized to mobilize CD34+ cells into the PB in cancer patients and in normal CD34+ cell donors.
The mobilizing sequences were: standard-dose epirubicin+taxol+granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 15 patients with advanced breast cancer), high-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX)+G-CSF (10 patients with breast cancer patients and 7 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL), and G-CSF alone (5 normal donors of CD34+ cells for allogeneic transplantation). Comparative data were obtained from the steady-state PB of 20 healthy volunteers. For flow cytometric analysis, DC were gated as negative for specific lineage markers (CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD16, CD56, CD19, CD20, CD34) and positive for HLA-DR. The DC1 and DC2 subsets were defined as CD11c and CDw123 positive, respectively.
The percentages of DC at baseline and the time of CD34+ cell peak were: 0.48 and 0.51 for standard-dose chemotherapy (CT); 0.55 and 0.63 for breast cancer after high-dose CTX+G-CSF; 0.53 and 0.71 for NHL after high-dose CTX+G-CSF; and 0.51 and 0.54 for normal donors of CD34+ cells after G-CSF alone (all p=n.s.). Mean DC1/DC2 ratios in each study group at the time of CD34+ cell peak were 0.10, 0.12, and 0.18, respectively. Finally, in the group of healthy volunteers, the percentage of circulating DC was 0.95 and the mean DC1/DC2 ratio was 1.28.
To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates that both standard-dose or high-dose CT, when utilized together with G-CSF, do not induce DC mobilization into the PB, whereas a reversed DC1/DC2 ratio is observed. Furthermore, a lack of significant DC mobilization after G-CSF alone was also seen, in contrast to what was previously observed by others. These data should be taken in account when evaluating clinical correlations between DC number and CPC engraftment in both the transplantation setting, when monitoring the effects on the immune system of combinations of new drugs and/or cytokines, and when high numbers of DC are required for both experimental and clinical applications.
- SourceAvailable from: John W Upham[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recognition of the importance of dendritic cells (DC) in the initiation of T-cell-dependent immune responses has led to increasing interest in methods for the identification of DC within the circulation. We sought to develop a flow cytometric method that would allow the reliable enumeration of absolute myeloid DC counts in minimally manipulated blood samples. Myeloid DC were identified by three-color staining of whole blood leukocytes as a discrete population of mononuclear cells expressing high levels of HLA-DR and CD33, yet having little or no expression of CD14 and CD16. This method was analyzed for reproducibility and variation in blood DC number during typical clinical day hours and after exercise. The new method was compared to an established commercial kit method. FACS sorting of the CD33(+) DC showed that they morphologically resembled immature DC, and developed cytoplasmic projections typical of mature DC following overnight culture in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Within peripheral blood, these DC were found at a mean concentration of 17. 4 +/- 5.4 x 10(6) per liter, corresponding to 0.93 +/- 0.27% of mononuclear cells. Comparison of duplicate samples stained and analyzed in parallel showed that the intrasample variability was very low, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95. The frequency of CD33(+) myeloid DC and their light scatter characteristics were similar to that of CD11c(+) myeloid cells. Four-color FACS analysis revealed complete identity of CD11c(hi), HLA-DR(+) DC with CD33(+), HLA-DR(+) DC. Only rare CD33(+) DC coexpressed CD123 and HLA-DR. Numbers of blood myeloid DC, identified by CD33 staining, showed no significant variation during standard laboratory hours. However, their numbers rose significantly during vigorous exercise, in parallel to other blood cells. The method described herein is rapid, reproducible, requires only small volumes of blood, can be readily used by a clinical immunology laboratory, and requires fewer antibodies than a currently available commercial method.Cytometry 06/2000; 40(1):50-9.
- Annals of Oncology 02/1999; 10(1):21-7. · 7.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Optimum methods of harvesting circulating hematopoietic progenitors for autologous transplantation to support myeloablative cancer therapy are still uncertain, mostly because of the lack of an assay for marrow-repopulating stem cells. The CFU-GM assay, the commonly used indirect indicator of the quality of the graft, is poorly standardized and provides results evaluable only retrospectively. Based on the knowledge that hematopoietic progenitors express CD34 and CD33 differentiation antigens, we developed a dual-color direct immunofluorescence flow cytometry assay with the aim of replacing the CFU-GM assay advantageously. For this purpose, we applied both assays to 157 blood samples obtained daily throughout 20 different recoveries from pancytopenia induced by high-dose cyclophosphamide or etoposide cancer therapy with or without recombinant human GM colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF). The appearance of CD34+ cells in the circulation indicated that hematopoietic progenitors had increased to more than 500 CFU-GM/mL, a level clinically adequate for large-scale harvest by leukapheresis. Total CD34+ cells correlated well with CFU-GM (r = .89), and data could be fitted by a linear regression line described by the equation y = 388.3 + 64.0x, where y = CFU-GM/mL and x = CD34+ cells per microliter. Moreover, in a series of six patients treated with myeloablative chemoradiotherapy, early hematopoietic recovery of marrow functions was predicted more accurately by the number of transplanted CD34+/CD33+ cells than by either total nucleated cells, CFU-GM, CD34+/CD33- cells, or CD34-/CD33+ cells. Data presented in this article favor clinical use of the CD34/CD33 flow cytometry assay to guide harvesting of circulating hematopoietic progenitors for autologous transplantation and contribute to better understanding of the role played by circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell subsets in marrow recovery after myeloablative cancer therapy.Blood 02/1991; 77(2):400-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor