Respiratory and cardiovascular actions of orexin-A in mice.
ABSTRACT Ample evidence has been reported to show a probable contribution of orexin in the central cardiovascular regulation. Although cardiovascular and respiratory centers in the brain are located close to each other and are interconnected, the possible participation of orexin in respiratory regulation has not been fully documented. Here we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of orexin-A on respiratory and cardiovascular parameters in urethane-anesthetized mice. Respiratory frequency and tidal volume were recorded simultaneously with blood pressure and heart rate. Orexin-A (0.003-3 nmol in 2 microL) or vehicle was administered into the lateral ventricle or cisterna magna. Lateral ventricular administration induced a rise in respiratory frequency (by 11% at the highest dose), tidal volume (76%), blood pressure (13%) and heart rate (6%) in a dose-dependent manner. With intracisternal administration, however, respiratory frequency did not change while a similar increase in tidal volume (75%) was observed. A relatively larger cardiovascular response was elicited with intracisternal administration (blood pressure 26%, heart rate 9%). On the other hand, with either administration route, orexin-A did not affect reflex increases in respiratory frequency and tidal volume in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia. These results show possible participation of orexin-A not only in the cardiovascular regulation but also in the respiratory control system. Moreover, orexin can affect the cardiorespiratory control system at multiple sites in different ways. Orexin-A seems not to be involved in respiratory reflex regulation in mice at least under anesthetized condition.
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ABSTRACT: Orexin/hypocretin peptide mutations are rare in humans. Even though human narcolepsy is associated with orexin deficiency, this is only extremely rarely due to mutations in the gene coding prepro-orexin, the precursor for both orexin peptides. In contrast, coding and non-coding variants of the OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors have been identified in many human populations; sometimes, these have been associated with disease phenotype, although most confer a relatively low risk. In most cases, these studies have been based on a candidate gene hypothesis that predicts the involvement of orexins in the relevant pathophysiological processes. In the current review, the known human OX1/HCRTR1 and OX2/HCRTR2 genetic variants/polymorphisms as well as studies concerning their involvement in disorders such as narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness, cluster headache, polydipsia-hyponatremia in schizophrenia, and affective disorders are discussed. In most cases, the functional cellular or pharmacological correlates of orexin variants have not been investigated-with the exception of the possible impact of an amino acid 10 Pro/Ser variant of OX2 on orexin potency-leaving conclusions on the nature of the receptor variant effects speculative. Nevertheless, we present perspectives that could shape the basis for further studies. The pharmacology and other properties of the orexin receptor variants are discussed in the context of GPCR signaling. Since orexinergic therapeutics are emerging, the impact of receptor variants on the affinity or potency of ligands deserves consideration. This perspective (pharmacogenetics) is also discussed in the review.Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:57.
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes data regarding the brain expression of the orexin (hypocretin) system including: prepro-orexin (PPO), orexin A (OxA), orexin B (OxB) and the two orexin receptors 1 and 2 (OxR1, OxR2). Clinical data is limited to OxA and OxB in cerebral spinal fluid and serum/plasma, thus necessitating the development of animal models to undertake mechanistic studies. We focus on changes in animal models that were either exposed to a regime of altered sleep, metabolic energy homeostasis, exposed to drugs and noxious insults. Many more expressional studies are available for PPO, OxA and OxB levels, compared to studies of the receptors. Interestingly, the direction and pattern of change for PPO, OxA and OxB is inconsistent amongst studies, whereas for the receptors, there tends to be increased expression for both OxR1 and OxR2 after alterations in energy homeostasis, and an increased expression after noxious insults or exposure to some drugs. The clinical implications of these results from animal models are discussed in light of the findings from human studies, and future research directions are suggested to fill knowledge gaps with regard to the orexin system, particularly during early brain development.Brain research 07/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this review we focus on the role of orexin in cardio-respiratory functions and its potential link to hypertension. (1) Orexin, cardiovascular function, and hypertension. In normal rats, central administration of orexin can induce significant increases in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which can be blocked by orexin receptor antagonists. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), antagonizing orexin receptors can significantly lower blood pressure under anesthetized or conscious conditions. (2) Orexin, respiratory function, and central chemoreception. The prepro-orexin knockout mouse has a significantly attenuated ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex, and in normal rats, central application of orexin stimulates breathing while blocking orexin receptors decreases the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. Interestingly, SHRs have a significantly increased ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex relative to normotensive WKY rats and blocking both orexin receptors can normalize this exaggerated response. (3) Orexin, central chemoreception, and hypertension. SHRs have higher ABP and SNA along with an enhanced ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. Treating SHRs by blocking both orexin receptors with oral administration of an antagonist, almorexant (Almxt), can normalize the CO2 chemoreflex and significantly lower ABP and SNA. We interpret these results to suggest that the orexin system participates in the pathogenesis and maintenance of high blood pressure in SHRs, and the central chemoreflex may be a causal link to the increased SNA and ABP in SHRs. Modulation of the orexin system could be a potential target in treating some forms of hypertension.Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:22.