Nanometer patterning with ice

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Nano Letters (Impact Factor: 12.94). 07/2005; 5(6):1157-60. DOI: 10.1021/nl050405n
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nanostructures can be patterned with focused electron or ion beams in thin, stable, conformal films of water ice grown on silicon. We use these patterns to reliably fabricate sub-20 nm wide metal lines and exceptionally well-defined, sub-10 nanometer beam-induced chemical surface transformations. We argue more generally that solid-phase condensed gases of low sublimation energy are ideal materials for nanoscale patterning, and water, quite remarkably, may be among the most useful.

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