Nanometer Patterning with Ice

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Nano Letters (Impact Factor: 13.59). 07/2005; 5(6):1157-60. DOI: 10.1021/nl050405n
Source: PubMed


Nanostructures can be patterned with focused electron or ion beams in thin, stable, conformal films of water ice grown on silicon. We use these patterns to reliably fabricate sub-20 nm wide metal lines and exceptionally well-defined, sub-10 nanometer beam-induced chemical surface transformations. We argue more generally that solid-phase condensed gases of low sublimation energy are ideal materials for nanoscale patterning, and water, quite remarkably, may be among the most useful.

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    • "Though metal halides offer extremely high resolution, the film is found to be degraded by humidity after long (several weeks) exposure to air. More recently, ice and frozen carbon dioxide were shown to behave as an electron beam resist without the need of a development step [15-18]. However, they both require significant modification of the EBL system to maintain a low temperature, which greatly limits their application. "
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    ABSTRACT: Micropatterning of functional polymer materials by micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) with ice mold is reported in this paper. Ice mold was selected due to its thaw or sublimation. Thus, the mold can be easily removed. Furthermore, the polymer solution did not react with, swell, or adhere to the ice mold, so the method is suitable for many kinds of materials (such as P3HT, PMMA Alq3/PVK, PEDOT: PSS, PS, P2VP, etc.). Freestanding polymer microstructures, binary polymer pattern, and microchannels have been fabricated by the use of ice mold freely.
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