Depression syndromes with risk of alcohol dependence in adulthood: a latent class analysis.
ABSTRACT Using prospectively gathered data, we assessed whether depression is associated a risk for late-onset alcohol dependence, and whether that relationship differed by gender. The baseline interview was completed in 1981 (mean age=41.7 years, standard deviation (S.D.)=17.0, range 18-86) on a probability sample of Baltimore residents as part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Between 1993 and 1996, the original cohort was traced (73% of the survivors were re-interviewed, n=1920). Baseline depression items were subjected to gender-specific latent class analyses prior to exploring associations between class membership and two classifications of alcohol dependence: (1) lifetime prevalence, and (2) new onset assessed at follow-up. A depression syndrome class was identified (24% of the females and 20% of the males). The odds of lifetime alcohol dependence among those in the depressive syndrome class was significantly elevated for both sexes, relative to the non-depressed class. However, no appreciable association was found for depressive syndrome with the development of alcohol dependence. In this sample of middle-aged adults, the evidence supports an association for the presence of a depressive syndrome with lifetime alcohol dependence, but not for the new onset of alcohol dependence. Other predictors of alcohol dependence identified in the analyses are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Despite intense investigation, the temporal sequence between alcohol consumption and mental health remains unclear. This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and mental health over multiple occasions, and compared a series of competing theoretical models to determine which best reflected the association between the two.BMC Medicine 06/2014; 12(1):91. · 7.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase, regulates many processes, including cell growth and the immune response. mTOR is also dysregulated in several neurological diseases, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. However, the role of mTOR in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unexplored. The aims of our study were to determine whether inhibiting mTOR signaling could affect the outcome after ICH and to investigate the possible underlying mechanism. A rat ICH model was induced by intracerebral injection of collagenase IV into the striatum, and mTOR activation was inhibited by administration of rapamycin. mTOR signaling activation was determined by western blotting. Neurobehavioral deficit after ICH was determined by a set of modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS). The levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and cytokines were examined using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Our results demonstrated thatmTOR signaling was activated 30 minutes and returned to its basal level 1 day after ICH. Increased p-mTOR, which mean that mTOR signaling was activated, was predominantly located around the hematoma. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the neurobehavioral deficit after ICH, increased the number of Tregs, increased levels of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta and reduced interferon-gammaboth in peripheral blood and brain. Our study suggests that mTOR improves ICH outcome and modulates immune response after ICH.Journal of Neuroinflammation 03/2014; 11(1):44. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reducing the complexity of major depressive disorder by symptom-based subtypes constitutes the basis of more specific treatments. To date, few studies have empirically derived symptom subtypes separated by sex, although the impact of sex has been widely accepted in depression research. The community-based sample included 373 males and 443 females from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services (ZInEP) manifesting depressive symptoms in the past 12 months. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was performed separately by sex to extract sex-related depression subtypes. The subtypes were characterized by psychosocial characteristics. Three similar subtypes were found in both sexes: a severe typical subtype (males: 22.8%; females: 35.7%), a severe atypical subtype (males: 17.4%; females: 22.6%), and a moderate subtype (males: 25.2%; females: 41.8%). In males, two additional subgroups were identified: a severe irritable/angry-rejection sensitive (IARS) subtype (30%) comprising the largest group, and a small psychomotor retarded subtype (4%). Males belonging to the severe typical subtype exhibited the lowest masculine gender role orientation, while females of the typical subtype showed more anxiety disorders. The severe atypical subtype was associated with eating disorders in both sexes and with alcohol/drug abuse/dependence in females. In contrast, alcohol/drug abuse/dependence was associated with the severe IARS subtype in males. The study had a cross-sectional design, allowing for no causal inferences. This study contributes to a better understanding of sex-related depression subtypes, which can be well distinguished on the basis of symptom profiles. This provides the base for future research investigating the etiopathogenesis and effective treatment of the heterogeneous depression disorder.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor