Article

Brevetoxicosis: Red tides and marine mammal mortalities

University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, United States
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 07/2005; 435(7043):755-6. DOI: 10.1038/nature435755a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Potent marine neurotoxins known as brevetoxins are produced by the 'red tide' dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. They kill large numbers of fish and cause illness in humans who ingest toxic filter-feeding shellfish or inhale toxic aerosols. The toxins are also suspected of having been involved in events in which many manatees and dolphins died, but this has usually not been verified owing to limited confirmation of toxin exposure, unexplained intoxication mechanisms and complicating pathologies. Here we show that fish and seagrass can accumulate high concentrations of brevetoxins and that these have acted as toxin vectors during recent deaths of dolphins and manatees, respectively. Our results challenge claims that the deleterious effects of a brevetoxin on fish (ichthyotoxicity) preclude its accumulation in live fish, and they reveal a new vector mechanism for brevetoxin spread through food webs that poses a threat to upper trophic levels.

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    • "Kirkpatrick et al. (2010) found ED visits for digestive illnesses at the Sarasota Memorial Hospital increased by 40% during an FRT bloom event in 2001 (0.07 ± 0.01 per 100,000 cases) relative to 2002 (0.05 ± 0.01 per 100,000 cases) when there was no FRT bloom. Although shellfish harvest areas (SHAs) typically were closed during FRT blooms to mitigate the risks of NSP from the consumption of molluscan bivalves, these authors argued that humans could be contracting digestive illnesses through other pathways, including the consumption of illegally harvested shellfish, whole finfish (especially the entrails, where brevetoxins may be concentrated), the breathing of aerosols contaminated with brevetoxins, or the inadvertent swallowing of contaminated seawater (Flewelling et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Human respiratory and digestive illnesses can be caused by exposures to brevetoxins from blooms of the marine alga Karenia brevis, also known as Florida red tide (FRT). K. brevis requires macro-nutrients to grow; although the sources of these nutrients have not been resolved completely, they are thought to originate both naturally and anthropogenically. The latter sources comprise atmospheric depositions, industrial effluents, land runoffs, or submerged groundwater discharges. To date, there has been only limited research on the extent of human health risks and economic impacts due to FRT. We hypothesized that FRT blooms were associated with increases in the numbers of emergency room visits and hospital inpatient admissions for both respiratory and digestive illnesses. We sought to estimate these relationships and to calculate the costs of associated adverse health impacts. We developed environmental exposure-response models to test the effects of FRT blooms on human health, using data from diverse sources. We estimated the FRT bloom-associated illness costs, using extant data and parameters from the literature. When controlling for resident population, a proxy for tourism, and seasonal and annual effects, we found that increases in respiratory and digestive illnesses can be explained by FRT blooms. Specifically, FRT blooms were associated with human health and economic effects in older cohorts (≥55years of age) in six southwest Florida counties. Annual costs of illness ranged from $60,000 to $700,000 annually, but these costs could exceed $1.0million per year for severe, long-lasting FRT blooms, such as the one that occurred during 2005. Assuming that the average annual illness costs of FRT blooms persist into the future, using a discount rate of 3%, the capitalized costs of future illnesses would range between $2 and 24million.
    Environment international 04/2014; 68C:144-153. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.03.016 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    • "may have corresponded to ingestion of prey sources that were still contaminated from the 2005 K. brevis bloom event. Lag effect and brevetoxin reservoirs from postbloom exposure have been documented in a wide variety of species (Kreuder et al., 2002; Flewelling et al., 2005; Landsberg et al., 2009). This investigation was not a controlled experimental study; therefore, there was no population of birds that could be classified as truly ''nonexposed'' because the environment the birds were coming from was most likely contaminated with some level of brevetoxin during the entire period of the study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 04/2013; 49(2):246-60. DOI:10.7589/2011-09-270 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    • "Symptoms include acute gastrointestinal distress and neurological disorders (Steidinger & Baden 1984, Baden et al. 1995). Aerosolized brevetoxins are also responsible for triggering respiratory distress in humans and marine mammals, and through various routes of exposure, they are the cause of mass mortality events of fish, seabirds, and marine mammals (Gunter et al. 1948, Forrester et al. 1977, Flewelling et al. 2005). Numerous brevetoxins have been isolated from natural bloom events and laboratory cultures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Zooplankton grazers are capable of influencing food-web dynamics by exerting top-down control over phytoplankton prey populations. Certain toxic or unpalatable algal species have evolved mechanisms to disrupt grazer control, thereby facilitating the formation of massive, monospecific blooms. The harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming dinoflagellate Karenia brevis has been associated with lethal and sublethal effects on zooplankton that may offer both direct and indirect support of bloom formation and maintenance. Reductions in copepod grazing on K. brevis have been attributed to acute physiological incapacitation and nutritional inadequacy. To evaluate the potential toxicity or nutritional inadequacy of K. brevis, food removal and egg production experiments were conducted using the copepod Acartia tonsa and K. brevis strains CCMP 2228, Wilson, and SP-1, characterized using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) as having high, low, and no brevetoxin levels, respectively. Variable grazing rates were found in experiments involving mixtures of toxic CCMP 2228 and Wilson strains. However, in experiments with toxic CCMP 2228 and non-toxic SP-1 strains, A. tonsa grazed SP-1 at significantly higher rates than the toxic alternative. Additionally, A. tonsa experienced significantly greater mortality when exposed to toxic K. brevis strains, particularly after prolonged exposure. Egg production rates of copepods fed toxic K. brevis strains were similar to those of starved copepods, while those of copepods fed non-toxic SP-1 and the nutritious Rhodomonas salina were significantly higher. Analysis indicates that K. brevis impacts grazer populations via multiple synergistic mechanisms: (1) decreased ingestion rates, (2) decreased egg production, and (3) increased mortality of copepods through a combination of toxicity and nutritional inadequacy.
    Marine Ecology Progress Series 01/2012; 444. DOI:10.3354/meps09401 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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