Immortalized mouse mammary fibroblasts lacking dioxin receptor have impaired tumorigenicity in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model.

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz, Spain.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 09/2005; 280(31):28731-41. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M504538200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the dioxin receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is considered a major regulator of xenobiotic-induced carcinogenesis, its role in tumor formation in the absence of xenobiotics is still largely unknown. Trying to address this question, we have produced immortalized cell lines from wild-type (T-FGM-AhR+/+) and mutant (T-FGM-AhR-/-) mouse mammary fibroblasts by stable co-transfection with the simian virus 40 (SV-40) large T antigen and proto-oncogenic c-H-Ras. Both cell lines had a myofibroblast phenotype and similar proliferation, doubling time, SV-40 and c-H-Ras expression and activity, and cell cycle distribution. AhR+/+ and AhR-/- cells were also equally able to support growth factor- and anchorage-independent proliferation. However, the ability of T-FGM-AhR-/- to induce subcutaneous tumors (leimyosarcomas) in NOD/SCID-immunodeficient mice was close to 4-fold lower than T-FGM-AhR+/+. In culture, T-FGM-AhR-/- had diminished migration in collagen-I and decreased lamellipodia formation. VEGFR-1/Flt-1, a VEGF receptor that regulates cell migration and blood vessel formation, was also down-regulated in AhR-/- cells. Signaling through the ERK-FAK-PKB/AKT-Rac-1 pathway, which contributes to cell motility and invasion, was also significantly inhibited in T-FGM-AhR-/-. Thus, the lower tumorigenic potential of T-FGM-AhR-/- could result from a compromised adaptability of these cells to the in vivo microenvironment, possibly because of an impaired ability to migrate and to respond to angiogenesis.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Complex genomes utilize insulators and boundary elements to help define spatial and temporal gene expression patterns. We report that a genome-wide B1 SINE (Short Interspersed Nuclear Element) retrotransposon (B1-X35S) has potent intrinsic insulator activity in cultured cells and live animals. This insulation is mediated by binding of the transcription factors dioxin receptor (AHR) and SLUG (SNAI2) to consensus elements present in the SINE. Transcription of B1-X35S is required for insulation. While basal insulator activity is maintained by RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription, AHR-induced insulation involves release of Pol III and engagement of Pol II transcription on the same strand. B1-X35S insulation is also associated with enrichment of heterochromatin marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 downstream of B1-X35S, an effect that varies with cell type. B1-X35S binds parylated CTCF and, consistent with a chromatin barrier activity, its positioning between two adjacent genes correlates with their differential expression in mouse tissues. Hence, B1 SINE retrotransposons represent genome-wide insulators activated by transcription factors that respond to developmental, oncogenic, or toxicological stimuli.
    Genome Research 02/2011; 21(3):422-32. · 14.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because of their lipophilicity, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) cross the human placenta, possibly affecting central nervous system development. Most POPs are known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands and activators of AhR signaling. Therefore, AhR activation has been suggested to cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). We studied the effects of AhR ligands on basic processes of brain development in two comparative in vitro systems to determine whether AhR-activation is the underlying mechanism for reported DNT of POPs in humans. We employed neurosphere cultures based on human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and wild-type and AhR-deficient mouse NPCs (mNPCs) and studied the effects of different AhR agonists [3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)] and an antagonist [3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone (MNF)] on neurosphere development. Moreover, we analyzed expression of AhR and genes involved in AhR signaling. In contrast to wild-type mNPCs, hNPCs and AhR-deficient mNPCs were insensitive to AhR agonism or antagonism. Although AhR modulation attenuated wild-type mNPC proliferation and migration, hNPCs and AhR-deficient mNPCs remained unaffected. Results also suggest that species-specific differences resulted from nonfunctional AhR signaling in hNPCs. Our findings suggest that in contrast to wild-type mNPCs, hNPCs were protected against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNT because of an absence of AhR This difference may contribute to species-specific differences in sensitivity to POPs.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 11/2010; 118(11):1571-7. · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to the control of cell-to-cell communication, cell adhesion, migration or proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) during the AhR-dependent disruption of contact inhibition in non-tumorigenic liver epithelial cells. The contact inhibition of cell proliferation is a process restricting the cell division of confluent non-transformed cells, which is frequently abolished in cancer cells; however, the mechanisms contributing to its disruption are still only partially understood. Disruption of contact inhibition, which was induced by toxic AhR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in epithelial WB-F344 cells, reduced Cx43 protein levels, possibly via enhanced proteasomal degradation, significantly decreased the amount of gap junction plaques and downregulated GJIC, in an AhR-dependent manner. Although both intracellular and membrane Cx43 pools were markedly reduced in cells released from contact inhibition by TCDD, siRNA-mediated Cx43 knock-down was not sufficient to stimulate proliferation in contact-inhibited cells. Our data suggest that downregulation of Cx43/GJIC in non-transformed epithelial cells is an inherent part of disruption of contact inhibition, which occurs at the post-transcriptional level. This process runs in parallel with alterations of other forms of cell-to-cell communication, thus suggesting that toxic AhR agonists may simultaneously abrogate contact inhibition and reduce GJIC, two essential mechanisms linked to deregulation of cell-to-cell communication during tumor promotion and progression.
    Archives of Toxicology 10/2012; · 5.22 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014

Similar Publications