A seroepidemiologic survey of canine visceral leishmaniosis among apparently healthy dogs in Croatia. Vet Parasitol

Department for Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
Veterinary Parasitology (Impact Factor: 2.46). 08/2005; 131(1-2):35-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.04.036
Source: PubMed


Cross-sectional investigation was done on seroprevalence of Leishmania sp. infection among apparently healthy dogs in an area where canine leishmaniosis is endemic. Survey included 68 dogs living in the coastal city of Split, and 238 dogs living in 12 villages scattered in the hinterland. Each dog was clinically examined for the presence of some discrete signs compatible with leishmaniosis and by dot-ELISA modification determined the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies. The titre 1:600 and higher was regarded as positive in the study. The seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 42.85%, depending on the location. 54.34% of the seropositive dogs had moderately enlarged lymph nodes and/or some discrete changes on the skin. In our parasitological study, Leishmania sp. was isolated from several seropositive animals that had some clinical signs and from a few which did not have any. Data analysis revealed that serological positivity to Leishmania sp. was not associated with a dog's outdoor lifestyle and utility, but was associated with the gender and age.

Download full-text


Available from: Tatjana Zivicnjak,
  • Source
    • "However, serological test methods may underestimate the true number of infected animals as asymptomatic carriers often remain seronegative (Solano-Gallego et al. 2011). Considering risk factors, male dogs were described as being at higher risk of infection (Zaffaroni et al. 1999; Živičnjak et al. 2005; Miranda et al. 2008), which was also the case in the present study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for Albania, a country located in the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. Recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52 % for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in Albania. To provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between March 2010 and April 2011 in Tirana, Albania, were screened by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and serological methods for the presence of arthropod-borne infections, as well as Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Eight different pathogens, namely Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, and Mycoplasma haemocanis, were detected by direct methods with prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 9 %. Seroprevalence for Babesia spp., L. infantum, Anaplasma spp., and E. canis were 6.6, 5.1, 24.1, and 20.8 %, respectively. Dogs >1 year of age were positive for vector-borne infections significantly more often than younger dogs (p = 0.003). More than half (51.7 %) of the dogs were seroreactive to T. gondii and 18.3 % to N. caninum. This is the first report on the detection of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis, and M. haemocanis by PCR as well as the serological confirmation of exposure of dogs to N. caninum and T. gondii in Albania. The spectrum of pathogens and the seroprevalences for N. caninum and T. gondii in client-owned dogs from Tirana, Albania, are comparable to that reported in other countries in the Mediterranean Basin. The prevalence rates of vector-borne pathogens are at the lower range of that reported in studies from this geographical region. This is probably due to increased awareness of the owners of pet dogs, including better husbandry conditions and ectoparasiticidal treatment, thus limiting exposure of dogs to vectors.
    Parasitology Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00436-015-4765-8 · 2.10 Impact Factor
    • "Spain and Portugal (Zivicnjak et al., 2005; Marty et al., 2007; Lazri et al., 2008; Mazeris et al., 2010; Cortes et al., 2012; Lombardo et al., 2012; Miró et al., 2013; Ntais et al., 2013) (Fig. 1). The local levels of CanL prevalence and incidence differ significantly over time and even amongst contiguous areas, as they depend on ecological and climatic conditions that determine the abundance of vectors (Antoniou et al., 2009; Ready, 2013), as well as on preventive measures (Gavgani et al., 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in Europe, where it is endemic in the Mediterranean region, with dogs being considered the major reservoir of the parasite for humans and other mammalian hosts. The main transmission mode of Leishmania is by the bite of infected phlebotomine sand fly insects (genus Phlebotomus), which are the only proven vectors of this zoonotic protozoan. Less common, non-vectorial transmission between dogs include infection through transfused blood products from infected donors, transplacental and venereal transmission. CanL has exhibited an expansion to new locations in Europe, mainly northwards, either by territorial contiguity, often in association with global warming that favours vectorial transmission, or by the long-distance importation of infected dogs. The increasing incidence of CanL in countries where the disease is not endemic is challenging owners, veterinarians and government authorities. Most infected dogs in these new areas have been relocated from or travelled with their owners to endemic regions, but in some cases transmission might have also been autochthonous. In the absence of prophylactic measures, the introduction of infected dogs in areas previously free of endemic CanL but which have competent sand fly vectors can result in a potential persistence of L. infantum. The spread of L. infantum in Europe is reviewed with a focus on transmission, epidemiology and geographic distribution of endemic and non-endemic CanL, infection and disease in humans and animal hosts other than dogs, together with prevention and additional control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Parasitology 05/2015; 213(1). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.05.003 · 2.46 Impact Factor
    • "Xanthopoulou et al. (2011) Cat Ntais et al. (2013), Maroli et al. (2013), Millán et al. (2014), Chatzis et al. (2014) Croatia Dog Wolf P. perfiliewi, P. tobbi, P. neglectus/syriacus, P. mascittii, P. papatasi, P. sergenti, P. perniciosus,S. minuta Ziví cnjak et al. (2005), Bosní c et al. (2006) Beck et al. (2008) Alten (2012) Slovenia Dog P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. tobbi, P. papatasi Alten (2012), Maroli et al. (2013), Bourdeau et al. (2014) Montenegro Dog P. perfiliewi, P. tobbi, P. neglectus/syriacus, P. papatasi, P. sergenti Ivoví c et al. (2003, 2004), Alten (2012) Bosnia Dog P. neglectus/syriacus, P. perfiliewi, P. tobbi, P. papatasi, P. sergenti Alten (2012) Albania Dog P. perfiliewi, P. similis, P. tobbi, P. neglectus, P. papatasi Velo et al. (2003, 2005), Alten (2012) Hungary Dog P. neglectus/syriacus, P. perfiliewi, P. papatasi, P. mascittii Farkas et al. (2011), Alten (2012) Romania Dog P. perfiliewi, P. neglectus/syriacus, P. papatasi, P. sergenti Alten (2012), Mircean et al. (2014) Bulgaria Dog P. papatasi, P. sergenti, P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi, P. balcanicus, P. tobbi, Alten (2012), Harizanov et al. (2013) Serbia Dog P. perfiliewi, P. neglectus/syriacus, P. tobbi, P. papatasi, P. sergenti Alten (2012) Ukraine P. neglectus/syriacus, P. perfiliewi, P. papatasi Alten (2012), Maroli et al. (2013), UK Dog Shaw et al. (2009) Belgium Dog P. mascittii Depaquit et al. (2005) The Netherlands Dog Díaz-Espiñeira and Slappendel (1997) Germany Dog P. mascittii, P. perniciosus Moritz and Steuber (1999), Naucke and Pesson (2000), Naucke and Schmitt (2004) Horse Müller et al. (2009) Austria Dog P. mascittii Leschnik et al. (2008) Naucke et al. (2011), Poeppl et al. (2013) Switzerland Dog P. perniciosus Knechtli and Jenni (1989) Cat, Horse and Bovine P. mascittii Schawalder (1977), Rüfenacht et al. (2005), Müller et al. (2009), Lobsiger et al. (2010), Alten (2012), Richter et al. (2014) Italy Dog Black rat, Norwegian rat, house mouse, fox, wolf P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi, P. ariasi, P. mascittii, P. neglectu/syriacus, P. papatasi, P. sergenti, S. minuta D'Urso et al. (2004), Rossi et al. (2008), Morosetti et al. (2009), Pennisi (2013), Signorini et al. (2013), Dantas-Torres et al. (2014), Gaglio et al. (2014), Millán et al. (2014) Cat France Dog Fox, P. ariasi, P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi,P. papatasi,P. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease endemic in southern Europe, but which is spreading northwards. Millions of dogs, cats and other non-conventional companion animals susceptible to L. infantum, living in European households, may develop a severe disease and contribute to the spread of leishmaniosis because of travelling or re-homing. Dogs are the main reservoir but other new reservoirs have recently been incriminated. Sand flies remain the sole proven vector and non-vectorial transmission has been reported at individual level and in areas where the vector is absent. Clinical disease affects only a proportion of infected dogs and a complex genetic background of immune response is responsible for this susceptibility. There is a wide range of serological and parasitological diagnostic tools available whose cost-effective use depends on a reasoned approach. Clinical response to treatment of sick dogs is variable. Clinical cure is often obtained but clinical recurrence can occur and post-therapy follow up should be maintained life-long. In Europe, vaccination can be combined with individual protection with pyrethroids as part of an integrated approach to prevention.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2014; 208(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.12.023 · 2.46 Impact Factor
Show more