A review of 55 cases of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: reassessment of the histopathotogic findings leading to reclassification of 4 lesions as cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma and 19 as pseudo lymphomatous folliculitis

Department of Pathology, Saitama Medical School, Iruma-gun, Japan.
Human Pathlogy (Impact Factor: 2.81). 06/2005; 36(5):505-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2005.02.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To clarify the confusion surrounding the diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) that was formerly described as lymphadenosis benigna cutis, lymphocytoma cutis, or lymphocytic infiltration of Jessner and to assess whether newly recognized diagnoses, such as cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma and pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (PLF), may have been overlooked, we reexamined 55 Japanese cases of nonepidermotropic lymphoproliferative disorder that had previously been diagnosed as "cutaneous pseudolymphoma." In all these cases, the immunohistochemical expressions of CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD21, CD30, CD43, CD56, CD68, CD79a, kappa and lambda chains, S-100 protein, and latent membrane protein were assessed. In addition, in 13 cases the gene rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain was investigated using a polymerase chain reaction method. As a result of these investigations, we have identified 4 cases of cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma, 19 cases of PLF, 1 case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 2 cases of solitary nonepidermotropic pseudo-T-cell lymphoma, with the remaining 29 cases being CLH. Cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma, which represented 7.3% of the total, was distinguished from CLH by the presence of patchy or diffuse proliferation of centrocyte-like cells, plasma cells at the periphery of the lymphocytic infiltration, monotypic restriction of the light chains, and gene rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain. Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis was identified by the presence of activated pilosebaceous units with abundant CD1a-and S-100 protein-positive T-cell-activated dendritic cells. Of the cases that were reassessed, 34.5% were PLF.

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    ABSTRACT: Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (PLF) is a rare benign cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia that most commonly occurs in the facial region as a dome-shaped or flat elevated nodule. We studied the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 19 cases of PLF. The patients comprised 11 females and eight men (mean age 44.9; age range 9-77 years). All cases were solitary except one case with multiple lesions. The lesions were located in the facial region except one that was located in the back. Histologically, there was a diffuse or nodular lymphoid infiltrate with hyperplastic and distorted hair follicles and occasionally enlarged eccrine units with a clear nuclear morphology. Immunohistologically, three cases showed predominantly B-cells, eight cases predominantly B-cells with numerous T-cells, six cases predominantly T-cells with numerous B-cells, and two cases predominantly T-cells. All lesions showed increased numbers of perifollicular dendritic cells expressing anti-S-100 protein and CD1a. PLF is a rare, benign, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia that may resemble cutaneous lymphoma. It has characteristic clinical and pathologic features showing abundant periadnexal S-100/CD1a -positive dendritic cells with dilated and activated pilosebaceous units. The lesion may resolve with complete excision or present spontaneous regression.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cutaneous pseudolymphomas (CPL) are diseases that simulate cutaneous lymphomas both clinically and histologically but have a benign course. It can be very difficult, if not impossible, to differentiate pseudolymphoma from lymphoma and there is some semantic ambiguity about the term pseudolymphoma. The aim of this study was to determine the exact meaning attributed to the term pseudolymphoma by a representative sample of French dermatologists and pathologists. Materials and methods We designed two types of questionnaire, one for dermatologists and the other for pathologists, and sent them out to 274 dermatologists and to 110 pathologists. Results We received responses from 122 dermatologists (44.5%) and 64 pathologists (58.1%). In the dermatologist group, 56% consider that CPL is not a clearly defined entity, while 58% consider it a benign disease and only 18% feel that most CPLs are related to a precise cause; 72% of dermatologists perform a routine checkup, 58% initiate treatment and 84% conduct follow-up in the case of CPL. Among pathologists, 61% consider that CPL is not a clearly defined entity, 82% feel that cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia and cutaneous lymphocytoma are the same entity, and 75% consider that CPL are benign; 92% perform routine immunohistochemistry studies and only 26% screen for clonality. Bivariate statistical analysis showed that pathologists consider pseudolymphomas as benign entities frequently than dermatologists (χ2 test: P = 0.02; Fisher's exact test: P = 0.01) and that there are more pathologists than dermatologists who see more than four pseudolymphomas per year (χ2 test: P < 0.001; Fisher's exact test: P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis clearly identified a tendency among doctors viewing pseudolymphomas as a distinct entity to also consider them benign (Odds Ratio 0.29, CI 97.5% 0.14–0.58), irrespective of speciality or type of practice (hospital practice, private practice or both). Discussion This study demonstrates that, in France, the term pseudolymphoma is an ambiguous notion. We believe that cases in which it is impossible to differentiate pseudolymphoma from cutaneous lymphoma should be referred to as lymphoproliferations of undetermined significance, since more than 50% of physicians consider that the term pseudolymphoma designates a resolutely benign entity.
    Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie 02/2013; 140(2):105–111. DOI:10.1016/j.annder.2012.10.600 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a clinical case involving a 62-year-old white male, diagnosed with lymphocytoma cutis (Spiegler-Fendt sarcoid) in the cephalic segment. The diagnosis was carried out by pathological study and confirmed by immunohistochemical panel: evidence of polyclonality. Phototherapy sessions were suggested as treatment (13 PUVA sessions, with an accumulated dose of 58.65 J/cm2 ). The improvement was partial. Thus, infiltration of triamcinolone was opted for (one intralesional infiltration every 3 weeks). After 5 sessions, satisfactory improvement was observed: regression of nearly all the lesions.
    Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 12/2013; 88(6 Suppl 1):128-31. DOI:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20132320