Article

Age-dependent changes of glyoxalase I expression in human brain.

Neuroimmunological Cell Biology Unit, IZKF Leipzig, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
Neurobiology of Aging (Impact Factor: 4.85). 07/2006; 27(6):815-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.04.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increased modification and crosslinking of proteins by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a characteristic feature of aging, and contributes to the formation of many of the lesions of neurodegenerative diseases including neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, defense mechanisms against AGE formation or detoxification of their precursors such as the glyoxalase system are of particular interest in aging research. Thus, we investigated the age-dependent protein expression, the activity as well as the RNA level of glyoxalase I in Brodmann area 22 (auditory association area of superior temporal gyrus) of the human cerebral cortex. Our immunohistochemical results demonstrate the localization of glyoxalase I in neurons, predominantly pyramidal cells, as well as in astroglia, located predominantly in the subpial region. The number of glyoxalase I expressing neurons and astroglia increases with age, with a peak at approximately 55 years, and progressively decreases thereafter. These results were confirmed by biochemical investigations in total brain tissue, where the RNA, the protein level as well as the activity of glyoxalase I enzyme were analyzed in different age groups. In conclusion, the increase in glyoxalase I expression up to the age of 55 may be a compensatory mechanism against high oxoaldyde levels and the accumulation of AGEs. However, the decline of glyoxalase expression and activity in old age, possibly caused by impairment in transcription or/and translation, may subsequently lead to increased levels of reactive carbonyl compounds, followed by protein crosslinking, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glyoxalases are known to play a very important role in abiotic stress tolerance. This two-step pathway detoxifies ubiquitously present cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal, which otherwise increases to lethal concentrations under various stress conditions. Methylglyoxal initiates stress-induced signaling cascade via reactive oxygen species, resulting in the modifications of proteins involved in various signal transduction pathways, that eventually culminates in cell death or growth arrest. The associated mechanism of tolerance conferred by over-expression of methylglyoxal-detoxifying glyoxalase pathway mainly involves lowering of methylglyoxal levels, thereby reducing subsequently induced cellular toxicity. Apart from abiotic stresses, expression of glyoxalases is affected by a wide variety of other stimuli such as biotic, chemical and hormonal treatments. Additionally, alterations in cellular milieu during plant growth and development also affect expression of glyoxalases. The multiple stress-inducible nature of these enzymes suggests a vital role for glyoxalases, associating them with plant defense mechanisms. In this context, we have summarized available transcriptome, proteome and genetic engineering- based reports in order to highlight the involvement of glyoxalases as important components of plant stress response. The role of methylglyoxal as signaling molecule is also discussed. Further, we examine the suitability of glyoxalases and methylglyoxal as potential markers for stress tolerance.
    Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 06/2014; 33(6). · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was recently estimated to 1 in 88 children by the CDC MMWR. In up to 25 % of the cases, the genetic cause can be identified. Past studies identified increased level of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the brain samples of ASD patients. The methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the main precursors for AGE formation. Humans developed effective mechanism of the MG metabolism involving two enzymes glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) and hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase (HAGH). Our aim was to analyse genetic variants of GLO1 and HAGH in population of 143 paediatric participants with ASD. We detected 7 genetic variants in GLO1 and 16 variants in HAGH using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. A novel association between variant rs1049346 and ASD [OR (allele C)] = 1.5; 95 % CI = 1.1-2.2 and p < 0.05) was identified, and weak association between ASD and variant rs2736654 [OR (allele A)] = 2.2; 95 % CI = 0.99-4.9; p = 0.045) was confirmed. Additionally, a novel genetic variant (GLO1 c.484G > A, p.Ala161Thr) with predicted potentially damaging effect on the activity of the glyoxalase 1 that may contribute to the aetiology of ASD was identified in one participant with ASD. No association between genetic variants of the HAGH gene and ASD was found. Increased level of MG and, consequently, AGEs can induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation all of which have been implicated to act in the aetiology of the ASD. Our results indicate potential importance of MG metabolism in ASD. However, these results must be interpreted with caution until a causative relation is demonstrated.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 03/2014; · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Skin aging is the result of intrinsic chronological aging and photoaging, due to UV exposure, that both share important histological modifications and molecular features, including alterations of proteins. One of the main damage is glycation that occurs when reducing sugars react non-enzymatically with proteins. This reaction also happens when the dicarbonyl compounds GO (glyoxal) and MG (methylglyoxal), which are glucose derivatives, react with proteins. These compounds can be detoxified by the glyoxalase system composed of two enzymes, Glo1 (glyoxalase I) and Glo2 (glyoxalase II). The aims of the present mini-review are to briefly summarize our current knowledge of the biological roles of these enzymes in aging and then discuss the relevance of studying the role of glycation and of detoxifying systems in human skin aging.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 04/2014; 42(2):518-22. · 2.59 Impact Factor