Advanced paternal age associated with an elevated risk for schizophrenia in offspring in a Japanese population.
ABSTRACT Advanced paternal age at birth as a risk for schizophrenia in the adult offspring has been reported in previous studies exclusively conducted in Western countries and Israel. The question has arisen whether this finding could be replicated in countries with socially and culturally different attitudes toward marriage, including factors such as age at marriage. To address this question, we conducted a case-control study of a Japanese population.
The subjects were representative inpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. Unrelated healthy volunteers were recruited as control subjects. This study was conducted as one of a series of the projects by use of "The Mother and Child Health Handbooks (MCHHs)," from which information on parental characteristics around the time of birth, including parental ages at birth, had been extracted and recorded on computer.
Ninety-nine subjects with schizophrenia and 381 healthy control subjects enrolled for the study. Advanced paternal, but not maternal, age was associated with an elevated risk for schizophrenia. Reproducibility of the association across different cultures is suggestive of a causal link.
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ABSTRACT: We measured the association between paternal age and schizophrenia (SCZ), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BPD) in the Dutch population. In total, 14231 patients and 56924 matched controls were collected and analyzed for an association with paternal age by logistic regression. ASD is significantly associated with increased paternal age: Older fathers >40 years of age have a 3.3 times increased odds of having a child with ASD compared to young fathers <20 years of age. SCZ has significant associations for fathers aged >35 years (OR=1.27, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.05 and 1.53). For MDD, both younger and older fathers have increased odds. No association was found for BPD. The effects of paternal age as a risk factor are different for ASD and SCZ on one hand, and the affective disorders on the other hand. Different types of association might indicate different biological or psychosocial mechanisms. Late paternity (associated with predispositions to psychiatric disorders) seems the most probable explanation for the association with paternal age.Schizophrenia Research 07/2011; 129(2-3):128-32. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2011.03.021 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers' age at birth ≥ 35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment.Schizophrenia Research 02/2011; 128(1-3):143-9. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2011.02.006 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evolutionary Psychology studies suggest that women prefer slightly older or similarly aged partners, although to date few hypotheses have been put forth to explain this pattern of choice. Several recent studies have shown changes in male reproductive parameters as a result of increased age. In the current review of medical literature, we found evidence that much older men are more likely to be infertile, women with much older partners are more likely to experience problems during pregnancy, and children of much older men are more likely to have genetic abnormalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that reproducing with much older men does not represent the best reproductive option for women, which would explain the female preference for only slightly older or similarly-aged mates.Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) 01/2010; 15:119-123. DOI:10.1590/S1413-294X2010000100016