Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
Recollection of vivid memories after perirhinal region stimulations:
synchronization in the theta range of spatially distributed brain areas
Emmanuel Barbeaua,∗, Fabrice Wendlingb, Jean R´ egisa, Roderick Duncanc, Michel Ponceta,
Patrick Chauvela, Fabrice Bartolomeia
aLaboratoire de Neurophysiologie et de Neuropsychologie, INSERM EMI-U 9926, Facult´ e de M´ edecine, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
bLaboratoire Traitement du Signal et de l’Image, INSERM EPI 9934, Universit´ e de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
cDepartment of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow G51 4TF, Scotland
Received 3 June 2004; received in revised form 19 November 2004; accepted 23 November 2004
Available online 16 January 2005
Electrical stimulation of the temporal cortex in patients with epilepsy sometimes elicits experiential phenomena such as recollection of
vivid memories. The neurophysiological substrate of such phenomena is poorly understood. Furthermore, the relation between the site of
stimulation and the type of memory elicited has only recently started to be investigated. We investigated these issues in patient FGA who
had intracerebral electrodes stereotaxically implanted in the right temporal lobe for investigation of drug-resistant epilepsy. We report the
results of electrical stimulations of the perirhinal region. Two stimulations elicited experiential phenomena consisting of visual memories
that belonged to FGA’s past, but which were not related to any particular episode. These visual memories consisted of objects or of details
of objects. These two stimulations were contrasted with other stimulations in the same subhippocampal region. Cross-correlation analysis of
the depth-EEG signals filtered in frequency sub-bands revealed that experiential phenomena occurred only when the various brain structures
involved in the after-discharge were synchronized in the theta range. These structures included the perirhinal region, the hippocampus, other
limbic structures as well as a primary visual area. Our results suggest that recollection of vivid memory after electric stimulation of the cortex
may rely on wide networks of brain areas that transiently synchronize. These results also highlight the role of the perirhinal region in human
memory. Experiential phenomena are rarely obtained after brain stimulation. Replication of these results is thus required due to the small
number of observations reported.
© 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Experiential phenomena; Synchronization measure; Cortical networks; Visual memory
or feelings of familiarity (“d´ ej` a-vu”/“d´ ej` a v´ ecu”) (Bancaud,
Brunet-Bourgin, Chauvel, & Halgren, 1994; Penfield &
cortices, the results of which tend to remain constant across
ropsychologie du Pr Poncet, CHU Timone 6` eme´ etage, 264, rue Saint-Pierre,
13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France. Tel.: +33 4 91 38 59 28;
fax: +33 4 91 38 49 22.
E-mail address: email@example.com
patients and specific anatomical areas, the results of stimu-
lation of temporal lobes may vary. Within the same patient,
a specific experiential phenomenon can be elicited by stimu-
lation at a given site on one occasion but may or may not be
at another (Bancaud et al., 1994; Halgren, Walter, Cherlow,
& Crandall, 1978). This has made it difficult to identify the
mechanisms underlying experiential phenomena and differ-
ent theories have been proposed within this frame.
Jackson viewed experiential phenomena as being the
result of a release mechanism: spontaneous seizures would
erting its normal control on other centres, thus allowing old
memories to come to consciousness, resulting in a “dreamy
0028-3932/$ – see front matter © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
E. Barbeau et al. / Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
considered that stimulations were reactivating stored mem-
ory traces, experiential phenomena being viewed as replays
of engrams, like a “tape-recording” (Penfield, 1952). A gen-
eral theoretical framework to account for these effects was
provided by Gloor (1990). He suggested that electrical stim-
ulation could induce the elaboration of patterns of excitation
and inhibition in widely distributed neural networks, some
of which might be capable of representing the substrate of a
given previous experience in a caricatured way.
periential phenomena was recognized very early by the pio-
neering work of Jackson (Jackson & Colman, 1898; Jackson
& Stewart, 1899). However, Penfield and Perrot (1963) in-
duced experiential phenomena through stimulation of tem-
poral neocortex in a considerable number of patients. They
suggested that there were bidirectional connections between
temporal cortices (where traces would be stored) and a “cen-
trencephalic system” serving to integrate the trace (Penfield
& Jasper, 1954). One of the latest studies on the subject
reconciled these views, finding that experiential phenom-
ena depended upon neural networks engaging both medial
and lateral aspects of the temporal lobes, with the anterior
hippocampus, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus having
privileged access to this circuit (Bancaud et al., 1994).
Current ideas about the mechanisms subtending experi-
ential phenomena, and our understanding of brain structures
involved in such phenomena, converge on the notion that ex-
periential phenomena depend on the activation of distributed
ent neural assemblies scattered in different association cor-
tices and limbic areas that embed different aspects of a spe-
cific experience (Bancaud et al., 1994; Halgren & Chauvel,
ential phenomena, these neural networks have to our knowl-
edge never been formally demonstrated and physiological
mechanisms subtending them are unknown.
A second issue related to memory phenomena elicited in
epileptic patients is that authors working on the subject have
not previously attempted to analyze the memory phenomena
according to the type of memory elicited (e.g. semantic or
episodic memory). This may be due to the fact that it is only
recently that attempts have been made to fractionate declara-
tive memory into subsystems (Mishkin, Vargha-Khadem, &
Gadian, 1998; Tulving & Markowitsch, 1998) and because
this point is much debated (Squire & Zola, 1998). Without
these putative theoritical frames in mind, and given the vari-
ability of the results after stimulation discussed above, most
authors have found that experiental phenomena related to
memory were idiosynchratic and strongly related to the in-
terpersonal psychological state between the patient and the
examiner (Halgren, 1984).
We recently studied the effects of electrical stimulation
of medial temporal lobe structures in a series of 24 patients
and demonstrated dissociable effects whether the amygdalo-
hippocampal structure, the entorhinal or the perirhinal cor-
tex were stimulated (Bartolomei et al., 2004). In the present
study, we extracted one patient from this series on the ba-
sis of him reporting particularly well-described experiential
phenomena. Our objective was two-fold. First, we wanted
to study whether experiential phenomena relied on transient
neural networks as hypothesized above. Second, we wanted
to assess whether the type of memory reported by this pa-
tient was idiosyncratic (e.g. related to personality traits) or,
in contrast, was relevant to current models of memory (e.g.
related to the site of stimulation).
(total IQ: 104) as well as normal memory (MQ: 108, delayed
MQ: 114) both in the verbal and visual domain.
Anticonvulsant drugs failed to control the seizures, and
presurgical evaluation was performed. MRI showed no
signs of hippocampal sclerosis or other lesion. Volumet-
ric measurements of hippocampal and entorhinal cortex re-
vealed a slight diminution of right hippocampal volume
(FGA: 4173mm3, 12 control subjects: 4800, S.D.=324,
Z-score=−1.93) and normal right entorhinal cortex vol-
ume (FGA: 1434mm3, control subjects: 1635, S.D.=181,
Z-score=−1.11). Video-EEG recordings of seizures consis-
temporal (maximal over T4-O2 bipolar recording) theta dis-
charge. The seizures started with a sensation of ascending
epigastric tightness, anxiety, and nausea and were followed
by loss of consciousness with staring and unresponsiveness.
The absence of clear signs of hippocampal sclerosis and the
posterior predominance of the ictal discharge led to the deci-
sion to carry out invasive recording.
Stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) recording was
in particular the respective involvement of the medial and
lateral structures and the posterior limit of the epileptogenic
FGA neuropsychological assessment
Scale-III; WMS-R: Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised.
E. Barbeau et al. / Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
of FGA, with the site of implantation of each electrode. In green is shown
the implantation site of the electrode running through the perirhinal region.
In blue is shown the electrode whose medial part runs into the primary
visual cortex (see text for details). (B) A CT-scan showing contact location.
(C) Post-SEEG axial MRI showing the thin trace left by the electrode. (D)
Coronal MRI showing the stimulation site (green dots) in the depth of the
to the perirhinal region (see text for discussion).
zone. FGA was fully informed about the aim of the inves-
tigation before giving his consent. He had eight intracere-
bral electrodes implanted stereotaxically in the right tempo-
ral lobe orthogonal to the midline vertical plane (Fig. 1A).
Each electrode was from 33.5 to 51mm long, had a diam-
eter of 0.8mm and contained from 10 to 15 contacts 2mm
long separated by 1.5mm (Dixi Medical, France). A total
of 110 intracerebral contacts were simultaneously recorded.
with an analogue filter band-pass of 1–100Hz (Deltamed,
SEEG revealed that spontaneous seizures began with an
epileptiform discharge affecting the right anterior part of the
hippocampus and the amygdala, which secondarily involved
the posterior part of the hippocampus, the anterior subhip-
pocampal gyrus and the temporal neocortex. Anterior tem-
poral lobectomy was performed and the patient is currently
seizure free after 18-month follow-up.
2.2. The location of the electrode contacts
Each electrode was inserted stereotaxically under general
anesthesia. A postoperative CT-scan without contrast was
performed to check for the absence of bleeding and for the
precise location of each contact (Fig. 1B). MRI with 3D re-
construction was performed the day after removal of elec-
(Fig. 1C). The fusion of the postoperative CT-scan with this
MRI allowed precise anatomical localization of contacts: the
distance from the mid-line vertical plane of a given contact
distance from the mid-line vertical plane could be reported
and the reported position of the contact could then also be
viewed in the coronal or sagital plane (Fig. 1D). After this
procedure was completed, the anatomic structures in which
contacts were located were identified using 3D verification.
2.3. Electrical stimulations
Electrical stimulations were applied to each contact in the
grey matter as part of the standard functional and epilep-
togenic mapping procedure to delineate surgical resection.
Square wave pulses of alternating polarity were generated in
5s trains (1ms duration, 50pulses/s). All stimulations were
bipolar between two adjacent contacts.
2.4. Analysis of functional coupling
tional networks involved in specific cognitive functions. The
nals and to interpret results in terms of functional coupling
between neural assemblies that generate analyzed signals.
In the present work, cross-correlation was used to deter-
mine whether samples contained in a temporal sliding win-
dow defined on two depth-EEG signals from two separate
channels are correlated (Fig. 2A and B). The method is ap-
plied on a bandpass filtered version of depth-EEG signals to
frequency band (Wendling, Bartolomei, Bellanger, Bourien,
& Chauvel, 2003). The procedure consists of three steps.
Firstly, the two signals to be analyzed are filtered using a
filter bank whose cut-off frequencies were chosen in accor-
dance with classical EEG frequency sub-bands (Fig. 2C).
Secondly, a first quantity referred to as the linear correlation
coefficient r2is estimated on each pair of filtered signals X
to +1.0. Thirdly, a second quantity, referred to as the time de-
lay τXYand conjointly computed with coefficient r2on each
pair of filtered signals is represented as a function of time on
oscillations of signals X and Y. τXY-values are expressed in
milliseconds. If the signal from one structure is constantly
delayed with respect to the signal from the second structure,
it can be argued that there exists a causal relationship and,
by extension, that the activity generated by the first struc-
ture may be led by that from the second one (Pijn & Lopes
Da Silva, 1993).
2.5. Statistical analysis
r2- and τXY-values between pairs of signals recorded dur-
ing the after-discharge were computed before and after elec-
E. Barbeau et al. / Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
Fig. 2. (A) Bottom: depth-EEG signal recorded from the perirhinal region before (t<17s), during (17s<t<22s) and after (t>22s) electrical stimulation.
An after-discharge (22s<t<27s) is observed after the stimulation artefact. Top: distribution of the normalized average energy in frequency bands. During
the stimulation, the energy is mainly distributed on the gamma band since the stimulation frequency is 50Hz. Theta activity is predominant during the after-
discharge. (B) The signal recorded over the same period from the anterior hippocampus with corresponding energy distribution. An after-discharge is observed
whose energy mainly concentrates in the theta band. (C) Distribution of normalized average energy in frequency bands from both perirhinal region and anterior
hippocampus. Most energy concentrates in the theta band during the after-discharge. (D) Evolution of r2-values in the theta band as a function of time. r2-values
rise during the after-discharge (arrow). (E) Evolution of time delay τXYbetween signals recorded from the perirhinal region and anterior hippocampus as a
function of time. During the after-discharge, τXY-values in the theta band show a complex interaction between the perirhinal region and anterior hippocampus
trical stimulation for all structures that were activated during
the after-discharge. Significantly high r2-values were deter-
mined from a statistical t-test performed on r2-values mea-
sured before and after electrical stimulation, after Gaussian
correction (Bendat & Piersol, 1971). Relationships among
ical connections between these structures.
an electrode running through the anterior and basal portion
of the right temporal lobe (Fig. 1A): an initial stimulation
applied between contacts 5–6 at 2mA, two stimulations at
contacts 4–5 at 2 then at 2.5mA and then a fourth stimula-
tion at contacts 1–2 at 1.5mA. Contact 1 is the most medial
while contact 5 is the most lateral. The four stimulations re-
ported here were all successively applied within about half
an hour by the same examiner, while the patient remained
comfortably reclined on his bed. He had no way of knowing
when stimulations were applied, and was instructed to read
aloud and report anything unusual he would notice.
Stimulations through contacts 4–5 (stimulations 2 and 3)
in our patient. No other stimulation evoked any experience
hippocampus, the amygdala and the parahippocampal cortex
the perirhinal cortex (Insausti et al., 1998; Suzuki & Amaral,
1994) (Fig. 1C), an area known in the monkey as area TE
or Brodmann area 20. Recent work on the perirhinal cortex
in the monkey suggests that it may extend farther laterally
than has been thought until now (Suzuki & Amaral, 2003).
E. Barbeau et al. / Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
found in both structures (Xiang & Brown, 1998). Both areas
are anterior subhippocampal structures functionally related
as they belong to the visual ventral stream. The area where
perirhinal region” for the sake of simplicity.
3.1. Stimulation 1: Contacts 5–6 at 2mA
Electrical stimulation through contacts 5–6 at 2mA
yielded a small after-discharge 5s long (Fig. 3) visible in the
the perirhinal region, the amygdala and, with a slight delay,
collateral sulcus (stimulation of this visual area elicited ele-
mentary hallucinations such as twinkling round shapes in the
left visual field). The patient did not report feeling or seeing
anything during stimulation or during the after-discharge.
Functional coupling analysis of the results of this stimu-
lation revealed two networks: one centred on the perirhinal
region in the theta range (3.5–7.4Hz) and another centred on
the anterior hippocampus in the alpha range (7.5–12.4Hz)
(Fig. 4A and B). There was no indication of functional
coupling between either region and the aforementioned
3.2. Stimulation 2: Contacts 4–5 at 2mA
Stimulation through these contacts yielded a small after-
discharge of the same duration involving the same structures
of a different pattern, with slower rhythm in the anterior hip-
pocampus (Fig. 5, ) and earlier involvement of the visual
cortex (Fig. 5, ), as can be compared with Fig. 3.
coming but that it was hard to see, as it was too faint. He then
said he had seen a lake, which was behind his house. He
added: “I go there very often”. Upon later questioning, he
was able to explain that he had only seen the lake and then, a
while after, some bushes.
Functional coupling analysis revealed a different network
of activation between medial temporal lobe structures
(Fig. 4C), as energy was maximum in the theta range.
All r2-values between structures depicted in Fig. 4C were
significantly different from those measured between these
same structures at rest (Fig. 4C versus Fig. 4A, p<0.001).
Furthermore, contrary to the previous stimulation, a strong
relation in the theta range was found between the anterior
hippocampus and the perirhinal region with the visual area.
Analysis of time delay τXYindicated that the leading signal
shifted one or several times between structures during the
after-discharge. Specifically, the signal from the anterior
hippocampus first led that from the perirhinal region, and
then the situation reversed.
3.3. Stimulation 3: Contacts 4–5 at 2.5mA
The subsequent after-discharge had exactly the same pattern
that something had materialized and that it was a neighbor
going by in the street on a motorbike. He added: “I see him
very often” and said that it was his brother’s friend. Ques-
the hippocampus and the rhinal region. Note the slight and delayed modification in the visual region. Abbreviations—AM: amygdala, MTG: middle temporal
gyrus, Hip P: posterior hippocampus, Hip A: anterior hippocampus, TP: temporal pole, EC: entorhinal cortex, PR: perirhinal region, VC: visual cortex, STG:
superior temporal gyrus.
E. Barbeau et al. / Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
in the frequency range where most energy was observed: in the theta range in A, C and D unless mentioned otherwise in B (α=alpha range otherwise theta
range). The arrows indicate which structure is being driven according to time delay τXY. Double arrows indicate that two structures alternately take the lead.
A line indicates that time delay τXYbetween two structures is below 10ms. The thickness of the arrows is related to the value of r2. Anterior hippo.: anterior
hippocampus, posterior hippo.: posterior hippocampus. (A) Functional coupling at rest (analyzed here in the theta range). (B) Functional coupling following
stimulation of contacts 5–6 at 2mA. (C) Functional coupling during the after-discharge following stimulation of contacts 4–5 at 2mA. (D) Functional coupling
following stimulation of contacts 4–5 at 2.5mA.
tioned later, he explained that he had seen a chromed part of
a motor, then a black-leathered boot and that he had inferred
from these “distinct signs” that the person he was seeing was
his brother’s friend.
ous one (stimulation 2) to any specific past event and insisted
that it was quite usual for him to go to the lake or to see his
brother’s friend with his motorbike. Both memories were vi-
Fig. 5. Summary of the SEEG traces during stimulation of contacts 4–5 at 2mA. This stimulation induced an after-discharge with a synchronous appearance
in the amygdala, the hippocampus, the rhinal region and the visual region. For abbreviations, see Fig. 3.
and see text.
E. Barbeau et al. / Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
sual, coloured, with no movement, feeling or emotion. FGA
was completely aware of his hallucinations. He remembered
them well afterwards and was able to specify that he really
had the sensation of “seeing” the objects first and that it was
a moment after that he was able to relate them to a complete
4–5 (Fig. 4D). An example of how r2between the hippocam-
pus and the perirhinal region varied after this stimulation is
provided in Fig. 2D (top). τXYShifts between the perirhinal
region and anterior hippocampus during the after-discharge
were also observed (Fig. 2D, bottom).
3.4. Stimulation 4: Contacts 1–2 at 1.5mA
Stimulation of theses contacts, which were located in the
about 60s and involved all sampled medial temporal lobe
structures including the perirhinal region, but not the visual
prodrome of his spontaneous seizures.
In our patient, two electrical stimulations of the perirhi-
nal region elicited experiential phenomena related to mem-
ory. Those memories were visual and consisted of objects
or of details of objects. They were related to semantic au-
tobiographical knowledge (Kopelman, Wilson, & Baddeley,
1990). Our patient each time spontaneously stated that he
had “often” seen the objects. Those were not be related to
Functional coupling analysis of after-discharges during
those two stimulations revealed high correlation in the theta
range among signals recorded in MTL structures, and be-
tween MTL structures and a primary visual area. Another
stimulation (the first) induced a similar after-discharge in
the same structures, but no experiential phenomenon was
nal region and the anterior hippocampus were not synchro-
nized in the same frequency range, and that the level of
coupling between these structures and the visual area was
not different from normal activity at rest. Synchrony in the
theta range between these three structures thus seemed to
be required to enable experiential phenomena in our patient.
This interpretation is further supported by the last stimu-
lation. The stimulation of the same electrode more medi-
ally started an after-discharge in all MTL structures but not
in the visual cortex. No experiential phenomenon was in-
duced, suggesting that activation of MTL structures alone
was not sufficient to evoke experiential phenomena in this
This analysis is well supported by the pattern of the after-
discharges elicited by the stimulations. The visual primary
cortex was involved with a slight delay and rhythms were
faster in the hippocampus during the after-discharge elicited
by the first stimulation, as can be seen in Fig. 3. In contrast,
the visual primary cortex was involved simultaneously and
rhythms were slower in the hippocampus during the second
after-discharge that elicited vivid recollection, as can be ob-
served in Fig. 5. These after-discharges, although very simi-
that vivid recollection in this patient was supported by si-
multaneous synchronization in the same rhythms of spatially
distributed brain areas.
recollection in our patient. The nature of the memory that
For example, the primary visual area was synchronized with
has been shown that sensory-specific neural areas are reacti-
Ganis, & Thompson, 2001; Wheeler, Petersen, & Buckner,
in the visual pathway also probably participated to the expe-
riential phenomena but were not recorded with the available
A characteristic of the memory elicited in our patient
was that it was visual memory that belonged to his past.
The perirhinal region has been implicated in visual recogni-
tion memory (both short- and long-term) in animals and hu-
single objects or details of objects. This is in accord with
suggestions linking the perirhinal region to the visual ventral
items (Murray & Richmond, 2001). In addition, the memory
elicited in our patient belonged more to context-free, often
experienced, semantic memory than to context-dependant,
uniquely experienced, episodic memory. Semantic memory
is thought to largely depend on the ventral stream and on an-
terior subhippocampal structures (Tulving & Markowitsch,
1998; Vargha-Khadem et al., 1997). Memories reported by
able to recall them rather than just have a sense of familiarity
with them (Aggleton & Brown, 1999; Norman & O’Reilly,
In summary, we interpret our data in the following man-
tional contribution to the cognitive process. These areas,
which included the visual cortex, the perirhinal region and
the hippocampus as well as others whose contribution was
not analyzed here, were able to work in concert using the
E. Barbeau et al. / Neuropsychologia 43 (2005) 1329–1337
mechanism of synchronization. This transient network was
not static, as signal latency analysis revealed complex inter-
actions between the perirhinal region and the anterior hip-
pocampus, two areas that seemed crucial for the experiential
phenomena elicited in our patient. Each led the other in al-
ternating fashion, suggesting a dynamic network rather than
a purely bottom-up or top-down exchange of information. It
is noteworthy that this dynamic network was not generated
at random but seemed to be functionally strongly related to
the initial site of stimulation. Here, the perirhinal region was
stimulated and the patient reported semantic-like experien-
tial phenomena consisting of objects or of details of objects.
Other authors have reported purely episodic autobiograph-
ical memory experiential phenomena after stimulations of
the amygdala or the hippocampus. For example, Patient 3 of
Gloor, Olivier, Quesney, Andermann, and Horowitz (1982)
ing of people coming back. It is this Indian guy who was
here yesterday”. In this case, the patient spontaneously re-
ports the what, where and when of the episode (see also Pa-
tient 5, Bartolomei et al., 2004; Gloor et al., 1982), which
strongly contrasts with the experiences reported by our pa-
tient, who saw only objects and spontaneously used the term
our patient reported only objects may be attributable to the
site of stimulation, located in a region that encompassed the
memory of objects (see contact location in Section 3).
In humans, theta synchronization has been implicated in
memory recollection and recognition in several studies us-
ing scalp-EEG (Klimesch et al., 2001). Subdural record-
ings in epilepsy patients have revealed theta rhythms dur-
ing spatial navigation in a virtual maze (Kahana, Sekuler,
more frequent during recall than learning trials, as has been
observed in our study. Oscillations in other frequency range,
plicated in memory phenomena (Herrmann, Munk, & Engel,
2004, for a review). Interaction between theta and gamma
synchronization has also been observed (Fell et al., 2003).
Here, energy was maximum in the theta range and increased
very little in the gamma band as can be observed for example
in Fig. 2C. In addition no significant coupling was found in
the gamma band.
As brain waves reflect the collective behavior of neurons,
our results suggest that the different regions synchronized in
the theta range built up a transient functional neural network
related to the experiential phenomena. If so, then synchro-
tributed brain regions. Although wide neural networks have
et al., 1994; Gloor, 1990; Halgren & Chauvel, 1993),
there had been to our knowledge no supporting evidence
Stimulation was carried out in this patient as a part of a
clinical evaluation, and the results were analyzed after the
end of the SEEG recording, so the stimulations could not be
repeated. Due to the rarity of experiential phenomena, only
two such episodes were reported in this study, which raise
the question of the reliability of the findings. Replication of
these results is thus clearly needed. Notwithstanding, this
study highlights the potential usefulness of assessing tempo-
ral characteristics of neuronal responses during experiential
phenomena. It also suggests directions for future investiga-
phenomena may be relevant to the study of memory in the
EB is supported by a grant from Conseil G´ en´ eral des
Bouches du Rhˆ one. The authors wish to thank Dr. Aileen
McGonigal for reviewing the English.
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