The use of calnexin and calreticulin by cellular and viral glycoproteins
ABSTRACT Calnexin and calreticulin are homologous lectin chaperones that assist maturation of cellular and viral glycoproteins in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum. Calnexin and calreticulin share the same specificity for monoglucosylated protein-bound N-glycans but associate with a distinct set of newly synthesized polypeptides. We report here that most calnexin substrates do not associate with calreticulin even upon selective calnexin inactivation, while BiP associates more abundantly with nascent polypeptides under these conditions. Calreticulin associated more abundantly with orphan calnexin substrates only in infected cells and preferentially with polypeptides of viral origin, showing stronger dependence of model viral glycoproteins on endoplasmic reticulum lectins. This may explain why inactivation of the calnexin cycle affects viral replication and infectivity but not viability of mammalian cells.
SourceAvailable from: Peter Højrup[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calreticulin (Crt) and calnexin (Cnx) are homologous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones involved in protein folding and quality control. Crt is a soluble ER luminal Mr 46 kDa protein and Cnx is a Mr 67 kDa ER membrane protein. During purification of Crt from human placenta a soluble form of Cnx (sCnx) was consistently identified in a separate ion exchange chromatography peak. The sCnx was further purified and characterised. This showed that the protein had been cleaved after residue 472 (between Gln and Met), thus liberating it from the transmembrane and cytoplasmic parts of Cnx. The extraction and initial purification steps were carried out in the presence of protease inhibitors, thus ruling out that the cleavage was an artefact of the isolation procedure. This indicates that sCnx may have a physiological chaperone function similar to that of Crt.Protein Expression and Purification 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.pep.2013.09.006 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) are displayed on the majority of proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Removal of the outermost glucose residue recruits the lectin chaperone malectin possibly involved in a first triage of defective polypeptides. Removal of a second glucose promotes engagement of folding and quality control machineries built around the ER lectin chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) and including oxidoreductases and peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. Deprivation of the last glucose residue dictates the release of N-glycosylated polypeptides from the lectin chaperones. Correctly folded proteins are authorized to leave the ER. Non-native polypeptides are recognized by the ER quality control key player UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGT1), re-glucosylated and re-addressed to the CNX/CRT chaperone binding cycle to provide additional opportunity for the protein to fold in the ER. Failure to attain the native structure determines the selection of the misfolded polypeptides for proteasome-mediated degradation.Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.12.001 · 5.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to genus Alphavirus and family Togaviridae. The clinical manifestations developed upon CHIKV-infection include fever, myositis, arthralgia and maculopapular rash. Thus, the re-emergence of CHIKV has posed serious health threats worldwide. Due to the fact that myositis is induced upon CHIKV-infection, we sought to understand the dynamic proteomic regulation in SJCRH30, a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, to gain insights on CHIKV pathogenesis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) in combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to profile differential cellular proteins expression in CHIKV-infected SJCRH30 cells. 2DE analysis on CHIKV-infected cells has revealed 44 protein spots. These spots are found to be involved in various biological pathways such as biomolecules synthesis and metabolism, cell signaling and cellular reorganization. siRNA-mediated gene silencing on selected genes has elucidated the biological significance of these gene-translated host proteins involved in CHIKV-infection. More importantly, the interaction of vimentin with non-structural protein (nsP3) of CHIKV was shown, suggesting the role played by vimentin during CHIKV replication by forming an anchorage network with the CHIKV replication complexes (RCs).Journal of Proteomics 06/2014; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2014.06.003 · 3.93 Impact Factor